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Biotechnology, In Vitro Production of Natural Bioactive Compounds, Herbal Preparation, and Disease Management (Treatment and Prevention)

  • A. N. M. Alamgir
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Drug Research book series (PDR, volume 74)

Abstract

Biotechnology uses living systems to develop products and plant biotechnology generates useful products or services, e.g., different bioactive secondary metabolites including alkaloids, flavonoids and other phenolics, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, tannins, volatile oils, etc., from plant cells, tissues or organs culture independent of geographical and climatic factors under aseptic conditions. These bioactive compounds are economically important as drugs (pharmaceuticals), flavors, perfumes (fragrances), pigments (dyes), agrochemicals as well as cosmetics, food additives, etc. Different strategies, e.g., genetic transformation of plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, hairy roots and others can be applied for the improvement of production of bioactive compounds of secondary metabolic origin. Recombinant DNA techniques can be used to manipulate metabolic pathways and produce protein pharmaceuticals such as antibodies, and protein hormones. Bioinformatics and genomics can find application in drug discovery from plant-based products and biotechnological procedures can enhance and advance the studies of medicinal plants. Molecular biotechnology uses laboratory techniques to study and modify nucleic acids and proteins for applications in areas such as human and animal health, agriculture, and the environment. Herbal extracts are now widely used in the management of chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer, etc., as a part of CAM therapy. Plant-derived immune stimulators diverse small or large molecules (saponins, tomatine, inulin, polysaccharides), fungal β-glucans, complex molecules from marine sponge (α-galactosylceramide), shrimp chitin (chitosan), etc., have established adjuvant activity. Immunotherapy may be activation immunotherapy or suppression immunotherapy. Vaccines provide immune protection against diseases and plant-based edible vaccine production mainly involves the integration of transgene into the plant cells to produce the antigen protein for specific disease.

Keywords

Biotechnology Ascetic culture Disease management Chronic diseases Immunotherapy Edible vaccine 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyChittagong UniversityChittagongBangladesh

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