Integrating Landscape Hierarchies in the Discovery and Modeling of Ecological Drivers of Zoonotically Transmitted Disease from Wildlife
Changes in landscape and land use can drive the emergence of zoonoses, and hence, there has been great interest in understanding how land cover change and the cascade of ecological effect associated with it are associated with emerging infectious diseases. In this chapter, we review how a spatially hierarchical approach can be used to guide research into the links between landscape properties and zoonotic diseases. Methodological advances have played a role in the revival of landscape epidemiology and we introduce the role of methodologies such as geospatial analysis and mathematical modeling. Importantly, we discuss cross-scale analysis and how this would provide a richer perspective of the ecology of zoonotic diseases. Finally, we will provide an overview of how hierarchical research strategies and modeling might be generally used in analyses of infectious zoonoses originating in wildlife.
KeywordsHantaviruses Spill over Wildlife reservoirs Zoonoses Zoonotic RNA viruses Virus ecology Rodent borne viruses Landscape and the above
CBJ and LJSA acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation Grants (NSF) DMS-1516011 and DMS-1517719. CBJ and RDO acknowledge the support of the National Institutes of Health Grant (NIH) I103053. CBJ, LJSA, RDO, and DG acknowledge support from NIH R01 TW006986-01 through the NIH-NSF Ecology of Infectious Disease Program. RDO was partially supported by the Programa Nacional de Incentivo a los Investigadores (CONACYT, Paraguay).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was funded by National Science Foundation grants (DMS-1516011 and DMS-1517719) and National Institutes of Health grant (R010AI103053). This work was supported by a grant from the Fogarty International Center (R01 TW006986-01) under the NIH-NSF Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative.
Conflict of Interest
Douglas G. Goodin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Colleen B. Jonsson declares that she has no conflict of interest. Linda J. S. Allen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Robert D. Owen declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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