Mass Casualties Incident: Education, Simulation, and Training

  • Itamar Ashkenazi
  • Kristina Lennquist Montán
  • Sten Lennquist
Part of the Hot Topics in Acute Care Surgery and Trauma book series (HTACST)


An integrated and efficient response is necessary in the event of a major incident. This can only come about if the personnel involved are educated and trained in the unique procedures forethought to be necessary in the response to these incidents. A myriad of courses exist, each based on the education of specific skills and aimed at specific sectors. This raises a doubt about the real value of these courses in training the system to be prepared for a mass casualty incident. Only few endeavors aim in introducing students to the whole chain of medical response. A rational approach to mass casualty incident education and training is needed in which the educational effort is linked with the regional plan and the whole chain of response is targeted. Education of specific skills and frequent training of skills that are not performed routinely supplement this effort.


Accidents Mass casualty incident Multiple casualty incident Medical responders Disaster planning 


Conflicts of Interest

Sten Lennquist and Kristina Lennquist Montán are the developers of the MACSIM® ( simulation system in use by different organizations across Europe, in Thailand and in the Ukraine for training in the management of mass casualty incidents. The MACSIM simulation system is the basis of the Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) postgraduate course, which also was developed by Sten Lennquist and Kristina Lennquist Montán and now is owned by the International MRMID-Association, which is a non-profit organization ( Sten Lennquist was also the developer of the Emergo Train System, the processor of MACSIM. Itamar Ashkenazi is the developer of the smart injury tag system in use by the Israeli Homefront Command in large-scale exercises that test Israeli hospitals’ preparedness.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Itamar Ashkenazi
    • 1
  • Kristina Lennquist Montán
    • 2
  • Sten Lennquist
    • 3
  1. 1.Hillel Yaffe Medical CenterHaderaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Public Health SciencesTraumacenter Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska InstituteSolnaSweden
  3. 3.International MRMID-Association, University of LinköpingLinköpingSweden

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