Clinical Syndromes: Candida and Candidosis

  • Markus Ruhnke


The term candidosis or candidiasis comprises several categories of infection: systemic or invasive Candida infections/diseases (IC), such as acute disseminated candidosis, chronic disseminated candidosis (CDC) and candidaemia as well as superficial (muco-cutaneous) Candida infections. According to the recent consensus definition the term “fungal infection” should be replaced by “fungal disease”. Candidaemia is the most frequent manifestation of systemic Candida infection. The serious prognosis associated with candidaemia is highlighted by a recent survey of 60 cases with candidaemia due to C. albicans (n = 38) and non-C. albicans (n = 22): 8% developed severe sepsis and 27% septic shock. The all-cause mortality was 42%. Candidaemia is most often observed in non-granulocytopenic patients after abdominal surgery or catheter-related infection with secondary blood stream infection. Potential further manifestations of invasive disease are Candida oesophagitis (in the past often classified as muco-cutaneous candidosis), peritonitis, urinary tract infections. Less frequently, endocarditis, meningitis/meningoencephalitis or osteomyelitis are manifestations of acute disseminated candidosis.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Ruhnke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Haematology and OncologyParacelsus-KlinikOsnabrückGermany

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