Mycotoxins and Human Disease

  • Aleksandra Barac


Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that can be produced in crops and other food commodities and may cause a mycotoxicosis in humans. The usual route of mycotoxin exposure is ingestion as food or feed contaminants. However, dermal and inhalation also may be important routes of exposure. Direct effects of mycotoxins range from an acute disease where severe conditions of altered health may exist prior to death as a result of exposure to the toxin. These conditions are more likely following exposure to high levels of mycotoxin. Other, more insidious or occult conditions or more chronic disease manifestations may result from prolonged exposure to small quantities of the toxin. The mycotoxins that pose the greatest potential risk to human and animal health are aflatoxins, trichothecenes, fumonisins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, and ergot alkaloids. Awareness regarding the hazards of mycotoxins as contaminants of food and feed is growing, especially in the last decade.



Aflatoxins B1


International Agency for Research on Cancer


Hepatitis B


Aflatoxin M1




Ochratoxin A


Balkan endemic nephropathy




Water-damaged buildings




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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleksandra Barac
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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