Advertisement

An Additive and Subtractive Process for Manufacturing with Natural Composites

  • Stylianos DritsasEmail author
  • Yadunund Vijay
  • Marina Dimopoulou
  • Naresh Sanadiya
  • Javier G. Fernandez
Conference paper

Abstract

We present research work on a manufacturing process deploying natural composite materials. The objective of the project is to create a sustainable manufacturing process integrating materials, hardware, software and fabrication logic from the ground up. We deploy a bioinspired natural composite comprised by renewable, widely available, biodegradable and low-cost natural components. Material properties closely resemble those of high-density foams or low-density timbers and it is produced without any petrochemical or harmful solvents associated with adverse environmental effects. We designed a mobile material deposition system using the Direct Ink Writing method, with work envelope of over 3 m vertically and indefinite horizontal range, comprised of industrial robotic hardware and purpose-built mechanical mobile platform. We performed testing in characterizing material properties with and without the introduction of the printing process, tightly integrated material behavior with manufacturing and developed design software for direct transition from design to production. To address scaling, we approached the fabrication process from the perspective of fusing the best principles from both additive and subtractive manufacturing, offering geometric freedom and material efficiency of additive manufacturing while targeting production and quality efficiencies of subtractive and forming processes. We believe this process has the potential of significant impact on general manufacturing as well as the building industry.

Keywords

Robotics Additive manufacturing Natural composites 

References

  1. 1.
    3D Systems Inc.: 3D Printing Materials. https://www.3dsystems.com/materials/. Accessed 10 Feb 2018
  2. 2.
    Materialise: Materials http://www.materialise.com/en/manufacturing/materials/. Accessed 10 Feb 2016
  3. 3.
    Martin, O., Averous, L.: Poly(lactic acid): plasticization and properties of biodegradable multiphase systems. Polymer 42, 6209–6219 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bard, J., Mankouche, S., Schulte, M.: Morphaux, recovering architectural plaster by developing custom robotic tools. In: Brell-Çokcan, S., Braumann, J. (eds.) ROB|ARCH 2012: Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design, pp. 138–141. Springer, Vienna (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Friedman, J., Kim, H., Mesa, O.: Experiments in additive clay depositions. In: McGee, W., Ponce de Leon, M. (eds.) Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2014, pp. 261–271. Springer International Publishing Switzerland (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunn, K., Wozniak O’Connor, D., Nemela, M., Ulacco, G.: Free form clay deposition in custom generated molds, producing sustainable fabrication processes. In: Reinhardt, D., Saunders, R., Burry, J. (eds.) Robotic Fabrication Architecture, Art and Design 2016, pp. 317–325. Springer International Publishing Switzerland (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gramazio, F., Kohler, M.: Procedural Landscapes, Architecture and Digital Fabrication. http://www.dfab.arch.ethz.ch/web/d/lehre/211.html. Accessed 10 Feb 2018
  8. 8.
    Gardiner, B.J., Janssen, R.S.: FreeFab development of a construction-scale robotic formwork 3D printer. In: McGee, W., Ponce de Leon, M. (eds.) Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2014, pp. 131–144. Springer International Publishing Switzerland (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandez, G.J., Mills, A.C., Samitier, J.: Complex micro-structured 3D surfaces using Chitosan Biopolymer. Small 5(5), 614–620 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fernandez, J.G., Ingber, D.E.: Manufacturing of large-scale objects using biodegradable chitosan bioplastic. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299(8), 932–938 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu, Z.J., Wu, Q., McNabb Jr., S.H.: Chemical coupling in wood fiber and polymer composites: a review of coupling agents and treatments. Wood Fiber Sci. 32–1, 88–104 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    3D Systems Inc.: Tree-D Printing in Wood: https://www.3dsystems.com/blog/foc/freedom-of-creation-develops-tree-d-printing. Accessed 12 Nov 2016
  13. 13.
    Franke, R., Roffael, E.: Recycling of particle and fiberboards (MDF). Holz Roh Werkst. 56(1), 79–82 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lei, H., Pizzi, A., Navarette, P., Rigolet, S., Redl, S., Wagner, A.: Gluten protein adhesives for wood panels. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 24, 1583–1596 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pizzi, A.: Recent developments in eco-efficient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: opportunities and issues. J. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 8, 829–846 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lam, C.X.F., Mo, X.M., Teoh, S.H., Hutmacher, D.W.: Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer. Mater. Sci. Eng. 20, 49–56 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tan, R., Sia, C.K., Tee, Y.K., Koh, K., Dritsas, S.: Developing composite wood for 3D-printing. In: Janssen, P., Loh, P., Raonic, A., Schnabel, M.A. (eds.) CAADRIA 2017: Protocols, Flows and Glitches, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, pp. 831–840. Suzhou (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mogas-Soldevilla, L., Duro-Royo, J., Oxman, N.: Water-based fabrication. 3D Printing Add. Manuf. 1, 141–151 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stuecker, N.J., Miller, E.J., Ferrizz, E.R., Mudd, E.J., Cesarano, J.: Advanced support structures for enhanced catalytic activity. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43(1), 51–55 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewis, A.J.: Direct ink writing of 3D functional materials. Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2193–2204 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dritsas, S.: An advanced parametric modelling library for architectural and engineering design. In: Chien, S.F., Choo, S., Schnabel, M.A., Roudavski, S. (eds.) CAADRIA 2016: Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, pp. 611–620. Melbourne (2016)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vijay, Y., Sanandiya, N., Dritsas, S., Fernandez, G.J.: Control process settings for large-scale additive manufacturing with natural composites. In: Proceedings of ASME (2018). in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stylianos Dritsas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yadunund Vijay
    • 1
  • Marina Dimopoulou
    • 1
  • Naresh Sanadiya
    • 1
  • Javier G. Fernandez
    • 1
  1. 1.Singapore University of Technology and DesignSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Architecture and Sustainable DesignSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations