ExProtoVAR: A Lightweight Tool for Experience-Focused Prototyping of Augmented Reality Applications Using Virtual Reality

  • Nadine Pfeiffer-Leßmann
  • Thies Pfeiffer
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 851)


The exciting thing about augmented reality (AR) as an emerging technology is that there is not yet a common design language, nor a set of standard functionalities or patterns. Users and designers do not have much experience with AR interfaces. When designing AR projects for customers, this is a huge challenge. It is our conviction that prototypes play a crucial role in the design process of AR experiences by capturing the key interactions of AR and delivering early user experiences situated in the relevant context. With ExProtoVAR, we present a lightweight tool to create interactive virtual prototypes of AR applications.


Prototyping Design Augmented reality Panorama 360\(^\circ \) 



This work has been partly supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) of Germany in the project “ProFI - Prototyping for Innovation” and by the Cluster of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology “CITEC” (EXC 277), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).


  1. 1.
    Alce, G., Hermodsson, K., Wallergård, M., Thern, L., Hadzovic, T.: A prototyping method to simulate wearable augmented reality interaction in a virtual environment - a pilot study, January 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berning, M., Nakazawa, J., Yonezawa, T., Beigl, M., Riedel, T., Tokuda, H.: PARnorama: 360 degree interactive video for augmented reality prototyping. In: UbiComp 2013 Adjunct - Adjunct Publication of the 2013 ACM Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 1471–1474 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buettner, S., Mucha, H., Funk, M., Kosch, T., Aehnelt, M., Robert, S., Roecker, C.: The design space of augmented and virtual reality applications for assistive environments in manufacturing: a visual approach, pp. 433–440. ACM Press (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buur, J., Soendergaard, A.: Video card game: an augmented environment for user centred design discussions. In: Proceedings of DARE 2000 on Designing Augmented Reality Environments, DARE 2000, pp. 63–69. ACM, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Design Council: A study of the design process the double diamond (2005).
  6. 6.
    Kourouthanassis, P.E., Boletsis, C., Lekakos, G.: Demystifying the design of mobile augmented reality applications. Multimed. Tools Appl. 74(3), 1045–1066 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee, C., Bonebrake, S., Bowman, D.A., Höllerer, T.: The role of latency in the validity of AR simulation. In: 2010 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference (VR), pp. 11–18, March 2010Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee, C., Bonebrake, S., Hollerer, T., Bowman, D.A.: A replication study testing the validity of AR simulation in VR for controlled experiments. In: 2009 8th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 203–204, October 2009Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    MacIntyre, B., Gandy, M., Dow, S., Bolter, J.D.: DART: a toolkit for rapid design exploration of augmented reality experiences. In: Proceedings of the 17th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2004, pp. 197–206. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ProFI Project Consortium: BMBF project Prototyping for Innovation (2018).
  11. 11.
    Ragan, E., Wilkes, C., Bowman, D.A., Hollerer, T.: Simulation of augmented reality systems in purely virtual environments. In: 2009 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, pp. 287–288, March 2009Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Renner, P., Pfeiffer, T.: Attention guiding techniques using peripheral vision and eye tracking for feedback in augmented-reality-based assistance systems. In: 2017 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 186–194, March 2017Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    de Sá, M., Churchill, E.: Mobile augmented reality: exploring design and prototyping techniques. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, MobileHCI 2012, pp. 221–230. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shen, Y., Ong, S.K., Nee, A.Y.C.: Augmented reality for collaborative product design and development. Des. Stud. 31(2), 118–145 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steindecker, E., Stelzer, R., Saske, B.: Requirements for virtualization of AR displays within VR environments. In: Shumaker, R., Lackey, S. (eds.) VAMR 2014. LNCS, vol. 8525, pp. 105–116. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wafaa, A.M., Bonnefoy, N.D., Dubois, E., Torguet, P., Jessel, J.P.: Virtual reality simulation for prototyping augmented reality. In: 2008 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality, pp. 55–58, July 2008Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuland-Medien GmbH & Co. KGRheda-WiedenbrückGermany
  2. 2.CITEC, Bielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations