A Brief Survey on the Birds in Belukar Bukit, Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia

  • Gertrude David
  • Azuan Roslan
  • Elizabeth Pesiu
  • Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah


There is lack of published data on avifauna in Kenyir to verify and update the bird species present in the area. Bird surveys were conducted in three sampling occasions: 15–21 May 2015, 25 September – 2 October 2015 and 31 March – 5 April 2016 at Belukar Bukit, Kenyir. The objective of the survey was to compare the bird species diversity in three occasions in relation to the forest phenology. A total of 118 birds were sampled representing 60 species from 25 families from the three sampling occasions. Pycnonotidae (14%) is the most diverse family followed by Nectariniidae (17%) and Timaliidae (7%). Among the 60 species recorded, 35 species were recorded in the first occassion, followed by 10 species from the second occasion and 19 species from the third occassion. The flowering season in May 2015 and the fruiting season from end of September to early October 2015 might be one of the factors that influence the bird diversity in three different occasions. Therefore a long-term survey using various sampling methods need to be conducted to update the bird checklist of Belukar Bukit, Kenyir.


Birds Speciesdiversity Forestphenology Tasik Kenyir 



We would like to thank Kenyir Research Institute for providing us with the field equipments, accommodation, aid in logistic, and administrative supports. We would also like to thank Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) for the transportation provided during the field. Special thanks to Muhd Tarmizi Abdullah for the assistance during the survey. We acknowledged financial support from the Trans-disciplinary Grant Scheme (TRGS/2014/59373), Geran Galakan Penyelidikan , UMT (GGP/68007/2014/127), and Niche Research Grant Scheme (NRGS/2015/5313/2) led by M. T. Abdullah.


  1. Azman, N. M., Latip, N. S. A., Sah, S. A. M., Akil, M. A. M. M., Shafie, N. J., & Khairuddin, N. L. (2011). Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 22(2), 45–64.Google Scholar
  2. Barlow, J., Haugaasen, T., & Peres, C. A. (2002). Effects of surface wildfires on understorey bird assemblages in Amazonian forests. Biological Conservation, 105, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borges, S. H., & Stouffer, P. C. (1999). Bird communities in two types of anthropogenic successional vegetation in central Amazonia. The Condor, 101, 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davison, G. W. H., & Fook, C. Y. (2003). A photographic guide to birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. London: New Holland Publishers Ltd..Google Scholar
  5. Develey, P. F., & Stouffer, P. C. (2001). Effects of roads on movements by understorey birds in mixed-species flocks in central Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology, 15, 1416–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Engel, D. H., & Phummai, S. (2011). A field guide to tropical plants of Asia. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Edition.Google Scholar
  7. Gonzalez-Gajardo, A., Sepulveda, P. V., & Schlatter, R. (2009). Waterbird assemblages and habitat characteristics in wetlands; Influence of temporal variability on species-habitat relationships. Waterbirds, 32(2), 225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gray, M. A., Baldauf, S. L., Mayhew, P. J., & Hill, J. K. (2007). The response of avian feeding guilds to tropical forest disturbance. Conservation Biology, 21(1), 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haugaasen, T., Barlow, J., & Peres, C. A. (2003). Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: Short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss. Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 321–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. IUCN. (2016). The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2016-2. Retrieved from
  11. Lynch, J. F. (1995). Effects of point count duration, time-of-day, and aural stimuli on detectability of migratory and resident bird species in Quintana Roo, Mexico. In C. J. Ralph, J. R. Sauer, & S. Droege (Eds.), Monitoring bird populations by point counts (pp. 1–6). Albany: Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-149.Google Scholar
  12. Marsden, S. J., Whiffin, M., & Galetti, M. (2001). Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and Eucalyptus plantations around an Atlantic forest reserve, Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10, 737–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moradi, H. V., Zakaria, M., & Yusof, A. B. M. E. (2009). Insectivorous birds and environmental factors across and edge-interior gradient in tropical rainforest of Malaysia. International Journal of Zoological Research, 5(1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nordin, M., & Zakaria, M. (1997). Some effects of logging in mixed lowland dipterocarp forests on birds. In O. B. Gaik (Ed.), State of the Malaysian environment (pp. 161–166). Penang: Consumers’ Association of Penang Press.Google Scholar
  15. Nor-Hashim, E., & Ramli, R. (2013). Comparative study of understorey birds diversity inhabiting lowland rainforest virgin jungle reserve and regenerated forest. The Scientific World Journal.
  16. Norfaizal, G. M., Masrom, H., & Muhammad Radzali, M. (2015). Flora diversity of Pulau Tekak Besar, Tasik Kenyir, Hulu Terengganu, Malaysia. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 2(5), 179–183.Google Scholar
  17. Peh, K. S. H., Sodhi, N. S., De Jong, J., Sekercioglu, C. H., Yap, C. A. M., & Lim, S. L. H. (2006). Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Diversity and Distributions, 12(5), 572–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pesiu, E. (2018). Tree community structure, composition and above ground biomass in off coasts islands, setiu wetlands and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu.Google Scholar
  19. Phillipps, Q., & Phillipps, K. (2014). Phillipps field guide to the birds of Borneo (3rd ed.). Oxford: John Beaufoy Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Rahman, M. A. (2002). Using mist-nets on canopy walkways in Malaysia to study canopy avifauna. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 50(2), 499–506.Google Scholar
  21. Rajpar, M. N., & Zakaria, M. (2011). Bird species abundance and their correlationship with microclimate and habitat variables at natural wetland reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Zoology, 758573, 17. Scholar
  22. Rajpar, M. N., & Zakaria, M. (2014). Effects of habitat characteristics on waterbird distribution and richness in wetland ecosystem of Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks, 28, 105–120.Google Scholar
  23. Ramli, R., Ya’cob, Z., & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of birds in Kenaboi forest reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science, 28(4), 465–480.Google Scholar
  24. Ramli, R., Ya’cob, Z., Aimi, F., & Ezyan, N. H. (2010). A survey of avifauna in Bachok District, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia Journal of Science, 29(Special Issue), 121–130.Google Scholar
  25. Shi, W. T. (2012). A naturalist’s guide to the birds of Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan). Oxford: John Beaufoy Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  26. Sodhi, N. S., & Brook, B. W. (2006). Southeast Asian biodiversity in crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Strange, M., & Jeyarajasingam, A. (1993). Birds: A photographic guide to the birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore: Sun Tree Publishing Pte Ltd..Google Scholar
  28. Sulaiman, M. H., Embong, M., Mamat, M. A., Tahir, N. F. D. A., Latip, N. A., Murni, R., & Azhar, I. M. (2015). Preliminary rurvey of the bird assemblage at Tanjong Mentong, Lake Kenyir, Hulu Terengganu, Malaysia. Tropical Natural History, 15(1), 87–90.Google Scholar
  29. Watson, J. E. M., Whittaker, R. J., & Dawson, T. P. (2004). Habitat structure and proximity to forest edge affect the abundance and distribution of forest-dependent birds in tropical coastal forests of south-eastern Madagascar. Biological Conservation, 120, 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wells, D. R. (2007a). The birds of Thai-Malay peninsula: Volume I: Non-passerines. London: Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  31. Wells, D. R. (2007b). The birds of the Thai-Malay peninsula. Volume II: Passerines. London: Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd..Google Scholar
  32. Wells, D. R. (1999). The birds of Thai-Malay Peninsula: Non-passerines. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Wong, M. (1986). Trophic organization of understory birds in a Malaysian dipterocarp forest. The Auk, 103, 100–116.Google Scholar
  34. Yong, D. L., Qie, L., Sodhi, N. S., Poh, L. P., Peh, K. S. H., Lee, T. M., Lim, H. C., & Lim, S. L. H. (2011). Do insectivorous bird communities decline on land-bridge forest islands in Peninsular Malaysia? Journal of Tropical Ecology, 27, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zakaria, M., Khairul, A., & Jamalun, N. (2002). Comparison of understorey bird species composition in a primary and logged mixed hill dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Nature Journal, 19, 74–85.Google Scholar
  36. Zakaria, M., Leong, P. C., & Ezhar, Y. M. (2005). Comparison of species composition in three forest types: Toward using bird as indicator of forest ecosystem heath. Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(6), 734–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zanette, L., Doyle, P., & Tremont, S. M. (2000). Food shortage in small fragments: Evidence from an area-sensitive passerine. Ecology, 81, 1654–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gertrude David
    • 1
  • Azuan Roslan
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Pesiu
    • 1
  • Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Kenyir Research Institute TerengganuUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala NerusMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Tropical Biodiversity and Sustainable DevelopmentUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala NerusMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Tropical Biodiversity and Sustainable DevelopmentUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala NerusMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Marine and Environmental SciencesUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala NerusMalaysia

Personalised recommendations