Liver Cancers pp 199-212 | Cite as

Cholangiocarcinoma: From Mechanisms to Management

  • Leonard M. Quinn
  • Nicholas Bird
  • Robert Jones
  • David Vass
  • Hassan MalikEmail author


Cholangiocarcinoma represents a spectrum of biliary tract adenocarcinoma, including intrahepatic and extrahepatic disease. A rare malignancy with recognized risk factors, the genomic spectra of the disease, is still being defined. Symptomatically silent in the early stages, cholangiocarcinoma manifests a very poor prognosis with many patients having advanced disease at presentation. Surgery represents the only curative approach. Unfortunately, only a minority of patients have resectable disease. Both resected and non-resected patients are offered a variety of chemotherapy regimens with randomized clinical trials having recently reported. Preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy and orthotopic liver transplantation are not standard treatment protocol at the current time. We conclude this chapter with a discussion of ongoing and future research.


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma Distal cholangiocarcinoma Biliary tract cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard M. Quinn
    • 1
  • Nicholas Bird
    • 1
  • Robert Jones
    • 2
  • David Vass
    • 1
  • Hassan Malik
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Hepatobiliary Surgery, Digestive Diseases UnitAintree University HospitalLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of Liver SurgeryAintree University Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK

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