Repair of Osteochondral Defects in the Knee by Cellular (Chondrocyte and Stem Cell) Transplantation

  • George Bentley
  • Panos D. Gikas
Part of the Orthopaedic Study Guide Series book series (ORTHSTUDY)


Autologous chondrocyte implantation is now established as a successful treatment for many patients with osteochondral injuries of the knee. Indications, preoperative preparation, operative technique, post-operative management and rehabilitation are detailed. Newer developments such as matrix-assisted chondrocyte implantation (MACI) and “multilayer” repair are possible for filling deep bony defects. Anterior cruciate ligament repair and para-articular osteotomy for realignment of the tibio-femoral joint are also possible. Realignment procedures of the patella-femoral joint are essential where there is mal-tracking. The published results over a 10-year period indicate that 80% of patients have a satisfactory outcome. Autologous stem cells show promise for similar results by a “one-step” procedure and accelerated rehabilitation.


Articular cartilage Repair Autologous chondrocyte implantation with collagen membrane (ACIC) Matrix-assisted chondrocyte implantation (MACI) Stem cells Surgical indications Preoperative preparation Imaging Surgical techniques—ACIC, MACI Complications Outcomes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Bentley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Panos D. Gikas
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculo-Skeletal ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS TrustStanmoreUK
  3. 3.Bone Tumour UnitRoyal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS TrustStanmoreUK

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