• Ayman Gabr
  • Sunil Gurpur Kini
  • Fares S. HaddadEmail author
Part of the Orthopaedic Study Guide Series book series (ORTHSTUDY)


  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disorder characterized by a progressive softening and disintegration of articular cartilage accompanied by new bone formation and, often, synovial proliferation.

  • Although OA is considered a degenerative joint disease, the disease process is not purely degenerative. The loss of articular cartilage leads to changes in the loading surfaces at the joint margins with new bone formation and remodeling. These changes, together with the joint synovitis, lead to pain, loss of joint function, and disability with consequent reduction in quality of life.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayman Gabr
    • 1
  • Sunil Gurpur Kini
    • 2
  • Fares S. Haddad
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity College London HospitalsLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsManipal HospitalsBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Sport, Exercise and HealthUniversity College HospitalLondonUK

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