Advertisement

Organizational Participatory Research in North America

  • Paula Louise Bush
  • Jeannie Haggerty
  • Carol Repchinsky
  • Michael T. Wright
  • Christine Loignon
  • Vera Granikov
  • Ann C. Macaulay
  • Jean-François Pelletier
  • Sharon Parry
  • Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant
  • Pierre Pluye
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on North American (NA) participatory health research (PHR), particularly with organizations. We begin by presenting the definition of PHR put forth by NA leaders in 1995 and, then, sketching the contributions of those who have led the field since, developing, promoting, and advocating for PHR in Canada and the United States. We then define PHR with health organizations, that is, organizational participatory research (OPR). The remainder of the chapter focuses on the results of a qualitative analysis of the 16 North American examples we identified in a previous systematic review of OPR, as well as on our own work. We use the sequence of a research study, from developing relationships with research partners to determining the focus of the study, analyzing the data, and examining the results, to illustrate how OPR has been conducted in North America. Subsequently, we describe the changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that have been linked to these processes. We conclude with a discussion on challenges of OPR that North Americans have faced and how they have dealt with them.

Keywords

Participatory health research Organization North America Knowledge change Attitude change Behavior change 

References

  1. Allen, M. L., Salsberg, J., Knot, M., LeMaster, J. W., Felzien, M., Westfall, J. M., et al. (2017). Engaging with communities, engaging with patients: Amendment to the NAPCRG 1998 policy statement on responsible research with communities. Family Practice, 34(3), 313–321.  https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmw074.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Argyris, C., Putnam, R., & Smith, D. M. (1985). Action science: Concepts, methods, and skills for research and intervention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Argyris, C. (1995). Action science and organizational learning. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(6), 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1991). Participatory action research and action science compared. In W. F. Whyte (Ed.), Participatory action research (pp. 85–96). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, S. B., & Barker, R. T. (1994). Managing change in an interdisciplinary inpatient unit: An action research approach. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 21(1), 80–91.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Breda, K. L., Anderson, M. A., Hansen, L., Hayes, D., Pillion, C., & Lyon, P. (1997). Enhanced nursing autonomy through participatory action research. Nursing Outlook, 45(2), 76–81.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bush, P. L. (2014). Building on a YMCA’s health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming. (PhD), McGill University, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  8. Bush, P. L., & García Bengoechea, E. (2016). Building on a YMCA’s health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming. Evaluation and Program Planning, 57, 30–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.02.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bush, P. L., Hamzeh, J., & Macaulay, A. C. (2018). Community-Based Participatory Research Oxford Bibliographies Online: Public Health (3rd ed.): Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bush, P. L., Hamzeh, J., & Macaulay, A. C. (2018). Community-based participatory research, Oxford Bibliographies Online: Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cargo, M., & Mercer, S. L. (2008). The value and challenges of participatory research: Strengthening its practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 325–350.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.091307.083824.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: education, knowledge, and action research. Philadelphia (PA): Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cashman, S. B., Flanagan, P., Silva, M. A., & Candib, L. M. (2012). Partnering for health: Collaborative leadership between a community health center and the YWCA central Massachusetts. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP, 18(3), 279–287.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, J. C., Goetz, M. B., Feld, J. E., Taylor, A., Anaya, H., Burgess, J., et al. (2011). A provider participatory implementation model for HIV testing in an ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 29(4), 418–426.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornwall, A., & Jewkes, R. (1995). What is participatory research? Social Science & Medicine, 41(12), 1667–1676.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(95)00127-s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coughlin, D., & Brannick, T. (2001). Doing action research in your own organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Dobransky-Fasiska, D., Brown, C., Pincus, H. A., Nowalk, M. P., Wieland, M., Parker, L. S., et al. (2009). Developing a community-academic partnership to improve recognition and treatment of depression in underserved African American and white elders. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(11), 953–964.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31818f3a7e.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Dobransky-Fasiska, D., Nowalk, M. P., Pincus, H. A., Castillo, E., Lee, B. E., Walnoha, A. L., et al. (2010). Public-academic partnerships: Improving depression care for disadvantaged adults by partnering with non-mental health agencies. Psychiatric Services, 61(2), 110–112.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.61.2.110.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobransky-Fasiska, D., Nowalk, M. P., Cruz, M., McMurray, M. L., Castillo, E., Begley, A. E., et al. (2012). A community-academic partnership develops a more responsive model to providing depression care to disadvantaged adults in the US. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(3), 295–305.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Eisenberg, E. M., Baglia, J., & Pynes, J. E. (2006). Transforming emergency medicine through narrative: Qualitative action research at a community hospital. Health Communication, 19(3), 197–208.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. El Sherif, R., Roy, P., Tang, D. L., Pluye, P., Bush, P., Doray, G., et al. (2015). Toward an information management system for handling parenting information users’ comments. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 52(1), 1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pra2.2015.145052010076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elden, M., & Levin, M. (1991). Cogenerative learning: Bringing participation into action research. In W. F. Whyte (Ed.), Participatory action research (pp. 127–142). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. French, W. (1969). Organization development objectives, assumptions, and strategies. California Management Review, 12(2), 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
  25. Freire, P. (1996) Pedagogy of the opressed. NewYork: Continuum.Google Scholar
  26. Green, L. W., George, M. A., Daniel, M., Frankish, C. J., Herbert, C. J., Bowie, W. R., et al. (1995). Study of participatory research in health promotion: Review and recommendations for the development of participatory research in health promotion in Canada. Ottawa: The Royal Society of Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Greenwood, D., & Levin, M. (1998). Introduction to action research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Grimshaw, J., Eccles, M., Lavis, J., Hill, S., Squires, J. (2012). Knowledge translation of research.Google Scholar
  29. Hamelin Brabant, L., Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Viens, C., & Lefrancois, L. (2007). Engaging health care workers in improving their work environment. Journal of Nursing Management, 15(3), 313–320.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Hart, E. O., & Bond, M. (1995). Action research for health and social care: A guide to practice. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Holter, I. M., & Schwartz-Barcott, D. (1993). Action research: What is it? How has it been used and how can it be used in nursing? Journal of Advanced Aging, 18, 298–304.Google Scholar
  32. International Collaboration for Participatory Health Research (ICPHR). (2013). 'Position Paper 1: What is Participatory Health Research?’ Version: May 2013. Berlin: International Collaboration for Participatory Health Research (Accessed: 2 Nov 2017).Google Scholar
  33. International Collaboration for Participatory Health Research (ICPHR). (2013b). ‘Position Paper No. 2: Participatory Health Research: A Guide to Ethical Principles and Practice’ Version: October 2013. Berlin: International Collaboration for Participatory Health Research.Google Scholar
  34. Israel, B. A. (2013). Methods for community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  35. Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., & Becker, A. B. (1998). Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 173–202.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Israel, B. A., Eng, E., Schulz, A. J., & Parker, E. A. (2005). Methods in community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Jagosh, J., Macaulay, A. C., Pluye, P., Salsberg, J., Bush, P. L., Henderson, J., et al. (2012). Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: Implications of a realist review for health research and practice. The Milbank Quarterly, 90(2), 311–346.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00665.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones, D. J., Bush, P. L. and Macaulay, A. C. (2014). Beyond Consent: Respect for Community in Genetic Research. In eLS, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (Ed.). https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0005179.pub2
  39. Jones-Baucke, D. L. (1997). A qualitative study of the implementation of a system to increase nurses’ use of standardized nursing languages. (Ph.D.), UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Seattle (WA).Google Scholar
  40. Jones, L. and Wells, K. (2007) ‘Strategies for Academic and Cli- nician Engagement in Community–Participatory Partnered Research.’ Journal of the American Medical Association 297: 407–410.Google Scholar
  41. Labonte, R. (1997). Community, community development, and the forming of authentic partnerships: Some critical reflections. In: M. Minkler (Ed.), Community organizing and community building for health. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Lam, A. (2000). Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: An integrated framework. Organization Studies, 21(3), 487–513.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840600213001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lausten, G. R. (2005). Promoting ecological behavior in nurses through action research. Denver: Univesity of Colorado.Google Scholar
  44. Lavis, J., Robertson, D., Woodside, J., McLeod, C. B., & Abelson, J. (2003). How can research organizations more effectively transfer research knowledge to decision-makers. The Millbank Quarterly, 8(2), 221–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2, 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Macaulay, A. C., Commanda, L. E., Freeman, W. L., Gibson, N., McCabe, M. L., Robbins, C. M., et al. (1999). Participatory research maximises community and lay involvement (Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Review). British Medical Journal, 319(7212), 774–778. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/319/7212/774.pdf; expanded version at http://www.napcrg.org/responsibleresearch.pdf.
  47. Macaulay, A. C., Sirett, E., Bush, P. L. (2011). Community-based participatory research. Oxford Bibliographies Online: Public Health. Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0126.
  48. Macaulay, A., Jagosh, J., Pluye, P., Bush, P. L., & Salsberg, J. (2013). Quantitative methods in participatory research: Being sensitive to issues of scientific validity, community safety, and the academic-community relationship. Revue Nouvelle Practiques Society, 25, 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Macaulay, A. C., Sirett, E., Bush, P. L., (2015). Community-based participatory research. Oxford Bibliographies Online: Public Health (2nd edition): Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0126.
  50. Malus, M., Shulha, M., Granikov, V., Johnson-Lafleur, J., d’Souza, V., Knot, M., et al. (2011). A participatory approach to understanding and measuring patient satisfaction in a primary care teaching setting. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 5(4), 417–424.Google Scholar
  51. Mason, R. A. (2003). Action research: A hospital responds to domestic violence. Healthcare Management Forum/Canadian College of Health Service Executives Forum Gestion des soins de sante/College Canadien des directeurs de services de sante, 16(3), 18–22.Google Scholar
  52. Minkler, M. (2004). Ethical challenges for the “Outside” researcher in community-based participatory research. Health Education & Behavior, 31(6), 684–697.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198104269566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  54. Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (2008). Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Mirza, M., Gossett, A., Chan, N. K. C., Burford, L., & Hammel, J. (2008). Community reintegration for people with psychiatric disabilities: Challenging systemic barriers to service provision and public policy through participatory action research. Disability & Society, 23(4), 323–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Munn-Giddings, C., McVicar, A., & Smith, L. (2008). Systematic review of the uptake and design of action research in published nursing research, 2000–2005. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(6), 465–477.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987108090297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Munten, G., Van Den Bogaard, J., Cox, K., Garretsen, H., & Bongers, I. (2010). Implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing using action research: A review. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 7(3), 135–157.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6787.2009.00168.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Oetzel, J., Zhou, C., Duran, B., Pearson, C., Magarati, M., Lucero, J., et al. (2015). Establishing the psychometric properties of constructs in a community-based participatory research conceptual model. American Journal of Health Promotion, 29(5), e188–e202.  https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130731-QUAN-398.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Reason, P. (1994). Three approaches to Participative Inquiry. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 324–329). Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Salsberg, J., Parry, D., Pluye, P., Macridis, S., Herbert, C. P., & Macaulay, A. C. (2015). Successful strategies to engage research partners for translating evidence into action in community health: A critical review. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2015, 191856.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/191856.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Senesac, P. M. (2004). The roy adaptation model: An action research approach to the implementation of a pain management organizational change project. (Ph.D.), Boston College, William F. Connell Graduate School of Nursing. Chestnut Hill, MAGoogle Scholar
  62. Selener, D. (1997). Participatory action research and social change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Participatory Action Research Network.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, S. E. (1995). Dancing with conflict: Public health nurses in participatory action-research. Canada: University of Calgary.Google Scholar
  64. Soh, K. L. (2011). Action research studies in the intensive care setting: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48, 258–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.09.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Soh, K. L., Davidson, P. M., Leslie, G., & Rahman, A. B. A. (2011). Action research studies in the intensive care setting: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(2), 258–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.09.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., et al. (2003). A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290(5), 603–611.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.5.603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Straus, S. E., Tetroe, J., & Graham, I. D. (Eds.). (2009). Knowledge translation in health care: Moving from evidence to practice. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Stringer, E. T. (1999). Action research. 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Wallerstein, N. (2000). A participatory evaluation model for healthier communities: Developing indicators for New Mexico. Public Health Report. US Department of Health and Human Services, 115, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wallerstein, N., Oetzel, J., Duran, B., Tafoya, G., Belone, L., & Rae, R. (2008). What predicts outcomes in CBPR? In M. Minkler & N. Wallerstein (Eds.), Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes (pp. 371–392). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Waterman, H., Tillen, D., Dickson, R., & de Koning, K. (2001). Action research: A systematic review and guidance for assessment. Health Technology Assessment, 5(23), 1–166 http://www.hta.ac.uk/execsumm/summ523.shtml.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, A. S. (2005). Using participatory action research to make diabetes education accessible for people with visual impairment. San Francisco: Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center.Google Scholar
  73. Williams, A. S. (2009). Making Diabetes Education Accessible For People With Visual Impairment. The Diabetes Educator, 34(4), 612–621.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721709335005.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Williams, A. L., Selwyn, P. A., McCorkle, R., Molde, S., Liberti, L., & Katz, D. L. (2005). Application of community-based participatory research methods to a study of complementary medicine interventions at end of life. Complementary Health Practice Review, 10(2), 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Louise Bush
    • 1
  • Jeannie Haggerty
    • 1
  • Carol Repchinsky
    • 1
  • Michael T. Wright
    • 2
  • Christine Loignon
    • 3
  • Vera Granikov
    • 1
  • Ann C. Macaulay
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jean-François Pelletier
    • 5
  • Sharon Parry
    • 6
  • Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant
    • 1
  • Pierre Pluye
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Catholic University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Social HealthBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of Family MedicineSherbrooke UniversityLongueuilCanada
  4. 4.CIET/Participatory Research at McGill (PRAM)MontrealCanada
  5. 5.University of Montreal Mental Health Research InstituteMontrealCanada
  6. 6.Westmount YMCAWestmountCanada

Personalised recommendations