Typical Cases in Northwest China
In this chapter, we have described three typical cases in Northwest of urbanisation and industrialisation—Lanzhou New District, Ordos District and Xining Development Zone. We illustrate how urbanisation led by state developed fast in underdeveloped regions. All the local governments tried to build new cities on barren land despite high cost and low efficiency. They disobeyed the natural law of market and their attempt failed unsurprisingly. Lots of waste of resources was created. In all our cases, the financial back-up for creation of new cities came ultimately from leases of the state-owned land. This is the main legacy of the Maoist institutions.
KeywordsConstruction-pulled urbanisation State-led growth Infrastructure Industrial configuration High pollutant and high energy-dependent enterprises H-T Divide New District Ghost city Housing bubble Industrial recession
- Anon. E Er Duo Si Xinchengqu Wanyuan Fangjia Zhijiang Qicheng (A Seventy Percent Drop in 10000-Yuan Per Square Metre Building in New District of Ordos), vide: http://news.dichan.sina.com.cn/2011/11/07/400452_all.html. Available on 7 November 2011.
- ———. 2013a. GDP Cong Neimenggu Zhengsu Diyi Jiangzhi Daoshu Diyi (Falling from the Number One Growth Speed to the Bottom). Hangzhou Daily, June 30, vide: http://hzdaily.hangzhou.com.cn/dskb/html/2013-06/30/content_1525387.htm. Available on 30 June 2013.
- ———. 2013b. E Er Duo Si Ni Zengchan 6,000 Wandun Mei Taigao GDP, Qiye Buyuan Maidan (Ordos Government Planned a 60 Million Ton Increase in Coal Production while Enterprises Refused). sohu.com, June 25, vide: http://business.sohu.com/20130625/n379807417.shtml. Available on 25 June 2013.
- ———. Yetonghangye Huajie Channengguosheng Jian Shizhao (Smelting Copper Industry Reduced Excess Capacity). finance.ifeng.com, vide: http://finance.ifeng.com/a/20151203/14105700_0.shtml. Available on 3 December 2015.
- ———. Economic Growth Potential from Urbanisation Rate, vide: http://cpc.people.com.cn/19th/n1/2017/1021/c414305-29600807.html. Available on 21 October 2017.
- ———. 2001–2010 Nian Zhongguo Meitan Shichang Yanjiu Baogao (Report on China’s Coal Market, 2001–2010), vide: http://www.chinabgao.com/reports/print30445.html. Available on 31 March 2018.
- ———. Qinghai Ganhe Gongye Yuanqu (Ganhe Industrial Park, Qinghai). zhaoshang800.com, vide: http://y6462.y.zhaoshang800.com. Available on 10 February 2018.
- ———. Yijidu Ganhe Gongye Yuanqu 25 Xiang Gongye Xiangmu Jizhong Kaifugong Jianshe (Resuming 25 Construction Projects Altogether in Ganhe Industrial Park in the First Quarter). xinhua.net, vide: http://www.qh.xinhuanet.com/2017-04/01/c_1120738902.htm. Available on 1 April 2017.
- ———. Shui Zai Yang Zhongguo? (Who Is Supporting China?), vide: http://www.sohu.com/a/215000549_100013297. Available on 6 January 2018.
- Barboza, David. 2010. Chinese City Has Many Buildings, But Few People. The New York Times, October 19, vide: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/business/global/20ghost.html. Available on 20 October 2010.
- Borst, Nicholas. Urbanisation and Economic Growth in China, vide: https://piie.com/blogs/china-economic-watch/urbanization-and-economic-growth-china. Available on 12 September 2012.
- Chen, Qin. 2013. Chengshihua – Renko He Tudide Yaosu Zai Peizhi (Urbanisation – Re-allocation of Population and Land), PhD Dissertation, Fudan University.Google Scholar
- Chen, Tiancheng. Guicheng E Er Duo Si Xianzhuang (Current Status of Ordos), vide: http://www.360doc.com/content/17/0313/11/40217477_636434374.shtml. Available on 13 March 2017.
- Chen, Mingxing, et al. 2016. Huhuanyongxian Liangcede Renkou Fenbu Yu Chengzhenhua Geju Qushi – Changshi Huida Li Keqiang Zongli Zhi Wen (Distribution of Population and the Structure of Urbanisation – Trying to Answer Premier Li Keqiang’s Question). Journal of Geographical Sciences 26 (11): 1593–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dong Fureng, ed. 1999. Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Shi (A History of the People’s Republic of China). Beijing: Economic Science Press.Google Scholar
- E Er Duo Si Shi Renminzhengfu (Ordos Municipal Government), E Er Duo Si Shizhengfu Gongzuo Baogao (Report of Ordos Municipal Government), various years.Google Scholar
- E Er Duo Si Shizhengfu Gongzuo Baogao, 2006 (Report of Ordos Municipal Government 2006), vide: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/d32c121352d380eb62946d42.html. Available on 27 December 2010.
- Fu, Linlin. Lanzhou Kongcheng Ji: Yige Guojia Xinqude Xiaotiao Yangben (Lanzhou, An Empty Shell City: A Case of Recession of a National Growth Project), vide: http://www.jiemian.com/article/778364.html?_t=t. Available on 3 August 2016.
- Fu Zhiyong. 2002. Sanxian Janshe Ji Dui Xibu Dakaifade Lishi Qishi (Construction in the Interior and Its Historical Implications for Development of Northwest China), MA Dissertation, Central School of the Communist Party.Google Scholar
- Hancock, Tom, and Xinning Liu. Yan Jiehe Qisu Lanzhou Zhengfu Tuoqian Gongchengkuan (Yan Jiehe Sued the Lanzhou Government for Default on Construction Cost), vide: http://www.ftchinese.com/story/001076244?print=y. Available on 6 February 2018.
- Hu, Huanyong. 1935. Zhongguo Renkozhi Fenbu (Distribution of China’s Population). Dili Xuebao (Acta Geographica Sinica) 2: 33–74.Google Scholar
- Lan, Yahong. 2013. E Er Duo Si Cheng Zhaicheng (Ordos Became Debt City). sina.com, July 8, vide: http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/dfjj/20130708/110816048313.shtml. Available on 8 July 2013.
- Li, Jun. 2011. E Er Duo Si Guicheng Loushi Bengpan, Wanyuan Fangjia Diequ Qicheng (A Seventy Percent Drop in 10000-Yuan Per Square Metre Building in Ordos). China Enterprise News, November 25, vide: http://house.qq.com/a/20111125/000158_1.htm. Available on 25 November 2011.
- Li, Zailei, Xiaofei Wu, and Shasha Yu. 2016. E Er Duo Si Fangpiao (Housing Exchange Program in Ordos). Southern Weekly, July 17, vide: http://www.infzm.com/content/118332. Available on 17 July 2016.
- Liu, Xing, and Haiping Wang. 2014. E Er Duo Si Fangjia Bengpan Zhentong (Pain of Housing Bubble in Ordos). China Youth News, November 3, vide: http://www.ce.cn/xwzx/gnsz/gdxw/201411/03/t20141103_3831045.shtml. Available on 3 November 2014.
- Looney, Kristen, and Meg Rithmire. Urbanization with Chinese Characteristics? China’s Gamble for Modernization, Working Paper 16-083, Harvard Business School, vide: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/16-083_643383b9-cfdf-479e-9569-181a4f4fb0c1.pdf. Available on 31 March 2018.
- Lu, Shuiming. 2000. Xibu Dakaifade Lishi Yu Xianzhuang (The Past and Present of China Western Development). Bainian Chao 8: 17–23.Google Scholar
- Lu, Zhenhua. 2010. Neimeng E Er Duo Si Bei Yiwei Xiandaihua Kongcheng (Ordos of Inner Mongolia Is Regarded as a Modern Ghost Town), vide: https://news.qq.com/a/20100413/000806_2.htm. Available on 13 April 2010.
- Mo, Yan. Lanzhou Xinqu – Zhonggong Yuanlao Song Ping De Yuyan (New District of Lanzhou and the Outlook by Song Ping, the Veteran Communist), vide: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzI3NTE2NjI4Nw%3D%3D&idx=1&mid=2670641612&sn=9b4941fd132b03079e7fa74a05c85e73. Available on 4 July 2017.
- Mu Jin. E Er Duo Si Shi Fangdichan Touzi Guore (Real Estate-Overheating in Ordos), vide: http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-11-28/123011638690.shtml. Available on 28 November 2006.
- Philips, Tom. China Goes West: A Ghost City in the Sand Comes to Life. The Guardian, vide: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/mar/21/china-west-ghost-city-comes-to-life-lanzhou-new-area. Available on 21 March 2017.
- Wang, Fang. 2004. Sipu Zhi Wupu Jian Zhongguo Chengzhen Renkou Zengzhang Guocheng Fenxi (Analysis of Growth of China’s Urban Population Between the Fourth Census to the Fifth Census). Renkou Yanjiu (Population Research) 3: 60–67.Google Scholar
- Wu, Si. 2009. Qianguize: Zhongguo Lishizhongde Zhenshi Youxi (Hidden Rules: the True Game in China’s History). Shanghai: Fudan University Press.Google Scholar
- Xiao, Ming, and Yaqin Zhu. Lanzhou Xincheng Lunwei Guicheng (New Town Becoming Ghost Town in Lanzhou), vide: http://www.china.com.cn/shehui/2016-05/31/content_38568718_3.htm?bsh_bid=1101434199. Available on 31 May 2016.
- Yu, Jin. Zhongguo Xibu Dakaifa Shizhouniande Huigu Yu Zhanwang (Review and Prospect on the 10th Anniversary of China Western Development), vide: http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/41038/12344478.html. Available on 4 August 2010.
- Zhang, Jinsong. 2013. Lanzhou Zaocheng Xian Nining (Deep Trouble with City Construction in Lanzhou), China Real Estate Business, July 22, vide: http://www.fangchan.com/news/1/2013-07-22/351158.html. Available on 22 July 2013.
- Zhao, Shufang. 2010. Qiantan E Er Duo Si Minjian Rongzi Wenti (Private Banking in Ordos). Economic Forum 12: 166–168.Google Scholar
- Zhao, Lei, and Jinzhong Xu. 2012. Yan Jiehe: Zaizao Lanzhou (Yan Jiehe: Reconstructing Lanzhou). Zhongguo Jingji Zhoukan (China Economic Weekly) 47: 22–29.Google Scholar
- Zhongguo Guojia Tongjiju (National Bureau of Statistics), Zhongguo Tongji Nianjian (China Statistical Yearbook), Beijing: China Statistics Press, various years.Google Scholar