Dye Removal Using Microbial Biosorbents
Due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization, huge amounts of toxic sludge are being disposed into the environment. Improper management of this toxic sludge contaminates all components of the environment. Dyes are being used from very ancient period of time as colouring substances for almost every commodity. Some dyes are toxic to living organisms. Dyes may initiate cancer, mutation in the genetic sequences and suppress enzyme activities.
The review presents physical and chemical dye decolourizing methods. Complete removal of dyes pollution is not easy owing to the diversity and complex molecular structure of the dyes coupled with the associated toxicological aspects. The review also discuss the use of microbial species for dye removal. Many microbes of different taxonomic group of bacteria, fungi, and algae have been reported to enzymatically degrade dye molecules. In addition, these types of biomasses have very high dye sorption capacity. Thus complete dye removal from the polluted water can be done by combining the bio-adsorption and bio-degradation processes.
KeywordsBiosorption Dyes Biomass Modeling Microbe Toxicity
UR, PD, and AB would like to thank WBDBT for the financial support. SM would like to thank Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), New Delhi, India for the financial support he is receiving as a National Postdoctoral Fellow (File number PDF/2016/000062). SS would like to thank UGC D. S. Kothari Postdoctoral Fellowship Scheme, New Delhi, India for the financial support she is receiving as a UGC DSK Postdoctoral Fellow (Appl. No. CH/15-16/0163).
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