• Cang Hui
  • Pietro Landi
  • Henintsoa Onivola Minoarivelo
  • Andriamihaja Ramanantoanina
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Ecology book series (BRIEFSECOLOGY)


Biodiversity is the most striking phenomenon in nature but perhaps also the most difficult to monitor and hypothesise. This chapter introduces key concepts and metrics for describing biodiversity patterns, as well as changes in these patterns. It starts with introducing the concepts of occupancy and aggregation across spatial scales for single species, followed by measures of species association and co-occurrence. It then discusses biodiversity patterns based on the manipulation of species-by-site matrices, from occupancy frequencies to species turnover and partitioning. It ends with the effects of imperfect detection and sampling on observed biodiversity patterns. This chapter lays the platform for understanding concepts and models of other chapters.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cang Hui
    • 1
  • Pietro Landi
    • 1
  • Henintsoa Onivola Minoarivelo
    • 1
  • Andriamihaja Ramanantoanina
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematical SciencesStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa

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