Gender and Decent Work: The Role of Occupational Stereotypes

  • Chiara AnnovazziEmail author
  • Maria Cristina Ginevra
  • Elisabetta Camussi
Part of the Lifelong Learning Book Series book series (LLLB, volume 23)


Although there have been many encouraging developments in gender equality over the past three decades, inequalities already persist in several forms such as gender pay gap or benevolent sexism (Glick & Fiske, J Pers Soc Psychol 70(3):491–512, 1996). Young women experience higher unemployment rates and more various career barriers than their male peers (Signorelli, Choudhry, & Marelli, Eur J Dev Res 24(3):413–433, 2012). Women suffer from a general decrease in family-friendly arrangements (Vaughan-Whitehead, Work inequalities in the crisis: Evidence from Europe. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011) which may favor work/family conflicts (Nota, Soresi, Ferrari, & Ginevra, Eur Psychol 19:248–259, 2014). Lastly, women are still significantly under-represented in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics – STEM – fields (European Commission, She figures 2015 report. Gender in research and innovation. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016). Consequently, the International Labour Organization (Global employment trends: January 2009. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO, 2009) considers gender equality a relevant issue in its Decent Work Agenda, in order to permit both women and men to build a promising future for themselves, families and communities. Particular attention is also paid to educational and occupational choices which may be strongly influenced by stereotyped beliefs on gender roles and the labor market, discouraging young people from undertaking training or career pathways considered socially inappropriate for their gender (Eccles, Psychol Women Q 35(3):510–516, 2011). The chapter discusses the relationships between gender equality and decent work, focusing on career interventions (individual training or social engagement actions) for reducing gender stereotypes and discriminations. A three step – Awareness-Activation-Participation – new methodological approach to public engagement is applied on gender issues.


Gender equality Occupational stereotypes Decent work Public engagement 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Annovazzi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Cristina Ginevra
    • 1
  • Elisabetta Camussi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

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