Advertisement

Mixed Forest Plantations

  • Jon Urgoiti Otazua
  • Alain Paquette
Chapter
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 31)

Abstract

Forest plantations have become increasingly important worldwide. Whereas the global forest area is reduced every year, the establishment of forest plantations is experiencing a notable increase in the last decades. This trend also brings an increase in the dependence of society on forest plantations to obtain both timber and non-timber services. However, currently, the vast majority of forest plantations are composed of monospecific stands under the premise that they facilitate and maximize the harvesting of a few desirable tree species. As informed by biodiversity-ecosystem functioning science, these species-poor plantations may alter negatively the quality of ecosystem functions and services that humankind obtain from them. In addition, both forest plantations and natural forests are facing unprecedented ecological disturbances driven by global change as well as socio-economic uncertainties. This calls for a novel long-term forest management which seeks to provide tree plantations that are more resistant and resilient as well as able to adapt to these changes in social and environmental conditions. We argue that mixed plantations are the best option to meet these goals, since mixed-species stands support species with different biotic and abiotic sensitivities and recovery mechanisms following disturbances, thus ensuring the ability to self-organize, increasing resilience and adaptive capacity. In this chapter, we review a list of socioecological uncertainties and risks that forest plantations may face and how more diverse plantations can better cope with them compared to monocultures while stabilizing productivity or helping fight global warming through carbon sequestration.

Keywords

Mixed forest plantation Tree plantations Resilience Resistance Adaptability Forest management Uncertainties Risks Disturbances Productivity Ecosystem services 

References

  1. Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H et al (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–684.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azevedo JC, Possacos A, Aguiar CF et al (2013) The role of holm oak edges in the control of disturbance and conservation of plant diversity in fire-prone landscapes. For Ecol Manag 297:37–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbosa P, Hines J, Kaplan I et al (2009) Associational resistance and associational susceptibility: having right or wrong neighbors. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauhus J, Forrester DI, Gardiner B et al (2017) Ecological stability of mixed-species forests. In: Pretzsch H, Forrester DI, Bauhus J (eds) Mixed-species forests: ecology and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 337–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bond WJ, Woodward FI, Midgley GF (2005) The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. New Phytol 165:525–538.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01252.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyd IL, Freer-Smith PH, Gilligan CA, Godfray HCJ (2013) The consequence of tree pests and diseases for ecosystem services. Science (80- ) 342:1235773.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235773 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrere R (2004) Plantations are not forests. In: Perm W (ed) Watershed. Towards ecological recovery and regional alliance, pp 3–4Google Scholar
  8. Castagneyrol B, Giffard B, Péré C, Jactel H (2013) Plant apparency, an overlooked driver of associational resistance to insect herbivory. J Ecol 101:418–429.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castagneyrol B, Jactel H, Vacher C et al (2014) Effects of plant phylogenetic diversity on herbivory depend on herbivore specialization. J Appl Ecol 51:134–141.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science (80- ) 320:1458–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Côté P, Tittler R, Messier C et al (2010) Comparing different forest zoning options for landscape-scale management of the boreal forest: possible benefits of the TRIAD. For Ecol Manag 259:418–427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.10.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhôte J (2005) Implication of forest diversity in resistance to strong winds. In: Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner C, Schulze E-D (eds) Forest diversity and functionest diversity and function. Springer, Berlin, pp 291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diaz S, Wardle DA, Hector A (2009) Incorporating biodiversity in climate change mitigation initiatives. In: Naeem S, Bunker DE, Hector A et al (eds) Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human wellbeing an. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 149–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diaz D, Hamilton K, Johnson E (2011) State of the forest carbon markets 2011: from canopy to currencyGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickinson MB, Johnson EA (2004) Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality. Can J For Res 34:546–559.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drever C, Peterson G, Messier C et al (2006) Can forest management based on natural disturbances maintain ecological resilience? Can J For Res 36:2285–2299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nyström M et al (2003) Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Front Ecol Environ 1:488–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. European Environmental Agency (EEA) (2010) Global and European temperatures.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010201
  19. Faccoli M, Gatto P (2016) Analysis of costs and benefits of Asian longhorned beetle eradication in Italy. Forestry 89:301–309.  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpv041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fahey TJ, Woodbury PB, Battles JJ et al (2010) Forest carbon storage: ecology, management, and policy. Front Ecol Environ 8:245–252.  https://doi.org/10.1890/080169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010. FAO for pap 163:350. ISBN: 978-925-106654-6Google Scholar
  22. Felton A, Nilsson U, Sonesson J et al (2016) Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden. Ambio 45:124–139.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0749-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Flannigan MD, Amiro BD, Logan KA et al (2006) Forest fires and climate change in the 21ST century. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 11:847–859.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9020-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Food and Agriculture Organization (2015) Global forest resources assessment 2015 – desk referenceGoogle Scholar
  25. Forrester DI (2014) The spatial and temporal dynamics of species interactions in mixed-species forests: from pattern to process. For Ecol Manag 312:282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forrester DI, Bauhus J (2016) A review of processes behind diversity – productivity relationships in forests. Curr For Rep 2:45–61.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40725-016-0031-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gonzalez JR, Palahi M, Trasobares A, Pukkala T (2006) A fire probability model for forest stands in Catalonia (north-east Spain). Ann For Sci 63:169–176.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Griess VC, Knoke T (2011) Growth performance, windthrow, and insects: meta-analyses of parameters influencing performance of mixed-species stands in boreal and northern temperate biomes. Can J For Res 41:1141–1159.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x11-042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Griffin JN, O’Gorman EJ, Emmerson MC et al (2009) Biodiversity and the stability of ecosystem functioning. In: Naeem S, Bunker DE, Hector A et al (eds) Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human wellbeing: an ecological and economic perspective. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Grossiord C, Granier A, Gessler A et al (2013a) The influence of tree species mixture on ecosystem-level carbon accumulation and water use in a mixed boreal plantation. For Ecol Manag 298:82–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grossiord C, Granier A, Gessler A et al (2013b) Does drought influence the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in boreal forests? Ecosystems 17:394–404.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9729-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grossiord C, Granier A, Ratcliffe S et al (2014) Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111:14812–14815.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1411970111 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Grossman JJ, Vanhellemont M, Barsoum N et al (2018) Synthesis and future research directions linking tree diversity to growth, survival, and damage in a global network of tree diversity experiments. Environ Exp Bot 152:68–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hantsch L, Bien S, Radatz S et al (2014) Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation. J Ecol 102:1673–1687.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12317 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartley MJ (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. For Ecol Manag 155:81–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00549-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hautier Y, Seabloom EW, Borer ET et al (2014) Eutrophication weakens stabilizing effects of diversity in natural grasslands. Nature 508:521–525.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hector A, Hautier Y, Saner P et al (2010) General stabilizing effects of plant diversity on grassland productivity through population asynchrony and overyielding. Ecology 91:2213–2220.  https://doi.org/10.1890/09-1162.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J et al (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00212.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holling CS (1996) Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. In: Schulze P (ed) Engineering within ecological constraints. National Academy, Washington, DC, pp 31–44Google Scholar
  41. Hulvey KB, Hobbs RJ, Standish RJ et al (2013) Benefits of tree mixes in carbon plantings. Nat Clim Chang 3:869–874.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1862 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hunt C (2008) Economy and ecology of emerging markets and credits for bio-sequestered carbon on private land in tropical Australia. Ecol Econ 66:309–318.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. IPCC (2007) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York, 996.  https://doi.org/10.1038/446727a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jactel H, Brockerhoff EG (2007) Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects. Ecol Lett 10:835–848.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01073.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jactel H, Nicoll BC, Branco M et al (2009) The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage. Ann For Sci 66:701–701.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jactel H, Birgersson G, Andersson S, Schlyter F (2011) Non-host volatiles mediate associational resistance to the pine processionary moth. Oecologia 166:703–711.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-1918-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jactel H, Bauhus J, Boberg J et al (2017) Tree diversity drives Forest stand resistance to natural disturbances. Curr For Reports.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40725-017-0064-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson NK, Swanson FJ (2009) Historical context of old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest? Policy, practices, and competing worldviews. In: Spies TA, Duncan SL (eds) Old growth in a new world: a pacific northwest icon reexamined. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 12–28Google Scholar
  49. Jucker T, Bouriaud O, Avacaritei D, Coomes DA (2014) Stabilizing effects of diversity on aboveground wood production in forest ecosystems: linking patterns and processes. Ecol Lett 17:1560–1569.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12382 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kafka V, Gauthier S, Bergeron Y (2001) Fire impacts and crowning in the boreal forest: study of a large wildfire in western Quebec. Int J Wildl Fire 10:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keesing F, Holt RD, Ostfeld RS (2006) Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecol Lett 9:485–498.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00885.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Knoke T (2017) Economics of mixed forests. In: Pretzsch H, Forrester DI, Bauhus J (eds) Mixed-species forests: ecology and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 545–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knoke T, Moog M, Plusczyk N (2001) On the effect of volatile stumpage prices on the economic attractiveness of a silvicultural transformation strategy. For Policy Econ 2:229–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-9341(01)00030-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knoke T, Stimm B, Ammer C, Moog M (2005) Mixed forests reconsidered: a forest economics contribution on an ecological concept. For Ecol Manag 213:102–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knoke T, Ammer C, Stimm B, Mosandl R (2008) Admixing broadleaved to coniferous tree species: a review on yield, ecological stability and economics. Eur J For Res 127:89–101.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-007-0186-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Korhonen K, Delatour C, Greig BJW, Schönhar S (1998) Silvicultural control. In: Woodward S, Stenlid J, Karjalainen R, Huttermann A (eds) Heterobasidion annosum biology, ecology and control. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 283–314Google Scholar
  57. Koricheva J, Vehviläinen H, Riihimäki J et al (2006) Diversification of tree stands as a means to manage pests and diseases in boreal forests: myth or reality? Can J For Res 36:324–336.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x05-172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krehan H (2008) Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB) – eradication program in Braunau ( Austria ) in 2007. Forstschutz Aktuell 44:27–29Google Scholar
  59. Kunert N, Schwendenmann L, Potvin C, Hölscher D (2012) Tree diversity enhances tree transpiration in a Panamanian forest plantation. J Appl Ecol 49:135–144.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02065.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. del Río M, Schütze G, Pretzsch H (2014) Temporal variation of competition and facilitation in mixed species forests in central Europe. Plant Biol 16:166–176.  https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.12029 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. del Río M, Pretzsch H, Ruíz-Peinado R et al (2017) Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris–Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe. J Ecol 105:1032–1043.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Laliberté E, Wells JA, Declerck F et al (2010) Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant communities. Ecol Lett 13:76–86.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01403.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Le Quéré C, Moriarty R, Andrew RM et al (2015) Global carbon budget 2015. Earth Syst Sci Data 7:349–396.  https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-7-349-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lindén M, Vollbrecht G (2002) Sensitivity of Picea abies to butt rot in pure stands and in mixed stands with Pinus sylvestris in southern Sweden. Silva Fenn 36:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF (2002) Conserving forest biodiversity: a comprehensive multiscaled approach. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. Lindenmayer DB, Cunnigham RB, MacGregor C et al (2008) Temporal changes in vertebrates during landscape transformation: a large-scale ‘natural experiment’. Ecological 78:567–590.  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0945.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF, Lõhmus A et al (2012) A major shift to the retention approach for forestry can help resolve some global forest sustainability issues. Conserv Lett 5:421–431.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00257.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lindenmayer D, Messier C, Paquette A, Hobbs RJ (2015) Managing tree plantations as novel socioecological systems: Australian and north American perspectives. Gnangara Sustain Strateg Taskforce Perth Aust 1433:1427–1433Google Scholar
  69. Lindner M, Garcia-Gonzalo J, Kolström M, et al (2008) Impacts of climate change on European forests and options for adaptation. Rep Eur Comm Dir Agric Rural Dev AGRI-2007-G4-06 1–104Google Scholar
  70. Liu Y, Fang S, Chesson P, He F (2015) The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of host tree species. Nat Commun 6:4–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Loreau M (1998) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: a mechanistic model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:5632–5636.  https://doi.org/10.1073/Pnas.95.10.5632 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Loreau M (2010) Linking biodiversity and ecosystems: towards a unifying ecological theory. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365:49–60.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Loreau M, de Mazancourt C (2008) Species synchrony and its drivers: neutral and nonneutral community dynamics in fluctuating environments. Am Nat 172:E48–E66.  https://doi.org/10.1086/589746 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Loreau M, de Mazancourt C (2013) Biodiversity and ecosystem stability: a synthesis of underlying mechanisms. Ecol Lett 16:106–115.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12073 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Loreau M, Hector A (2001) Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412:72–76.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35083573 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lu F, Gong P (2005) Adaptive thinning strategies for mixed-species stand management with stochastic prices. J For Econ 11:53–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfe.2005.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lüpke B, Spellmann H (1999) Aspects of stability, growth and natural regeneration in mixed Norway spruce – beech stands as a basis of silvicultural decisions, IBN Scient. Springer International PublishingGoogle Scholar
  78. Macdougall AS, McCann KS, Gellner G, Turkington R (2013) Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse. Nature 494:86–89.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11869 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maňák V, Nordenhem H, Björklund N et al (2013) Ants protect conifer seedlings from feeding damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis. Agric For Entomol 15:98–105.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2012.00597.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McCann KS (2000) The diversity–stability debate. Nature 405:228–233.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35012234 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Messier C, Tittler R, Kneeshaw DD et al (2009) TRIAD zoning in Quebec: experiences and results after 5 years. For Chron 85:885–896.  https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc85885-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Messier C, Puettmann K, Chazdon R et al (2015) From management to stewardship: viewing forests as complex adaptive Systems in an uncertain world. Conserv Lett 8:368–377.  https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Michaletz ST, Johnson EA (2007) How forest fires kill trees: a review of the fundamental biophysical processes. Scand J For Res 22:500–515.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02827580701803544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mota M, Braasch H, Bravo MA et al (1999) First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1:727–734.  https://doi.org/10.1163/156854199508757 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nadrowski K, Wirth C, Scherer-Lorenzen M (2010) Is forest diversity driving ecosystem function and service? Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:75–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2010.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nagaike T, Masaki T, Ito S (2006) Special feature: ecology and management of conifer plantations in Japan: control of tree growth and maintenance of biodiversity. J For Res 11:215–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-006-0220-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Paquette A, Messier C (2010) The role of plantations in managing the world’s forests in the Anthropocene. Front Ecol Environ 8:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1890/080116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Paquette A, Messier C (2013) Managing tree plantations as complex adaptive systems. In: Messier C, Puettmann KJ, Coates DK (eds) Managing forests as complex adaptive systems: building resilience to the challenge of global change. The Earthscan Forest Library, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Paquette A, Messier C, Rinet P, Cogliastro A (2008) Simulating light availability under different hybrid poplar clones in a mixed intensive plantation system. For Sci 54:481–489Google Scholar
  90. Paquette A, Vayreda J, Coll L, et al (2017) Climate change could negate positive tree diversity effects on forest productivity: a study across five climate types in Spain and Canada. Ecosystems 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0196-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Paquette A, Hector A, Castagneyrol B, et al (2018) A million trees for science. Nat Ecol Evol Rev 1–11Google Scholar
  92. Parrotta JA, Wildburger C, Mansourian S (2012) Understanding relationships between biodiversity, carbon, forests and people: the key to achieving REDD+ objectives. A global assessment report prepared by the Global Forest Expert Panel on Biodiversity, Forest Management and REDD+. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)Google Scholar
  93. Pautasso M, Holdenrieder O, Stenlid J (2005) Susceptibility to fungal pathogens of forests differing in tree diversity. In: Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner C, Schulze E-D (eds) Forest diversity and function temperate and boreal systems temperate and boreal systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 263–289Google Scholar
  94. Pawson SM, Brin A, Brockerhoff EG et al (2013) Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity. Biodivers Conserv 22:1203–1227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-013-0458-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Peltola H, Kellomäki S, Hassinen A, Granander M (2000) Mechanical stability of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch: an analysis of tree-pulling experiments in Finland. For Ecol Manag 135:143–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00306-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peterson DL, Johnson MC, Agee JK, et al (2005) Forest structure and fire hazard in dry forests of the western United StatesGoogle Scholar
  97. Plath M, Dorn S, Riedel J et al (2012) Associational resistance and associational susceptibility: specialist herbivores show contrasting responses to tree stand diversification. Oecologia 169:477–487.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-2215-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Potvin C, Gotelli NJ (2008) Biodiversity enhances individual performance but does not affect survivorship in tropical trees. Ecol Lett 11:217–223.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01148.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Pretzsch H, Block J, Dieler J et al (2010) Comparison between the productivity of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and European beech along an ecological gradient. Ann For Sci 67:712–712.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2010037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Puettmann K, Ek A (1999) Status and trends of silvicultural practices in Minnesota. North J Appl For 16:203–210Google Scholar
  101. Puettmann KJ, Messier C, Coates DK (2009) A critique of silviculture: managing for complexity. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  102. Puettmann K, Messier C, Coates KD (2013) Managing forests as complex adaptive systems: Introductory concepts and applications. In: Managing forests as complex adaptive systems. Springer International Publishing, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  103. Reich PB, Tilman D, Isbell F et al (2012) Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades. Science(80- ) 336:589–592.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1217909 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reiss J, Bridle JR, Montoya JM, Woodward G (2009) Emerging horizons in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research. Trends Ecol Evol 24:505–514.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rivest D, Cogliastro A, Vanasse A, Olivier A (2009) Production of soybean associated with different hybrid poplar clones in a tree-based intercropping system in southwestern Québec, Canada. Agric Ecosyst Environ 131:51–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.08.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Roscher C, Schumacher J, Gubsch M et al (2012) Using plant functional traits to explain diversity-productivity relationships. PLoS One 7:e36760.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036760 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Roy BA, Alexander HM, Davidson J et al (2014) Increasing forest loss worldwide from invasive pests requires new trade regulations. Front Ecol Environ 12:457–465.  https://doi.org/10.1890/130240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Santini A, Ghelardini L, De Pace C et al (2013) Biogeographical patterns and determinants of invasion by forest pathogens in Europe. New Phytol 197:238–250.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04364.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sapijanskas J, Paquette A, Potvin C et al (2014) Tropical tree diversity enhances light capture through crown plasticity and spatial and temporal niche differences. Ecology 95:2479–2492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schelhaas M-J, Nabuurs G-J, Schuck A (2003) Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Glob Chang Biol 9:1620–1633.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00684.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schelhaas MJ, Hengeveld G, Moriondo M et al (2010) Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 15:681–701.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9243-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Scherer-Lorenzen M (2014) The functional role of biodiversity in the context of global change. In: Coomes DA, Burslem DFRP, Simonson WD (eds) Forests and global change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 195–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scherer-Lorenzen M, Schulze ED, Don A et al (2007) Exploring the functional significance of forest diversity: a new long-term experiment with temperate tree species (BIOTREE). Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 9:53–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2007.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schütz JP, Götz M, Schmid W, Mandallaz D (2006) Vulnerability of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest stands to storms and consequences for silviculture. Eur J For Res 125:291–302.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-006-0111-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sedjo RA (2001) From foraging to cropping: the transition to plantation forestry, and implications for wood supply and demand. Unasylva 52:204Google Scholar
  116. Silva JS, Moreira F, Vaz P et al (2009) Assessing the relative fire proneness of different forest types in Portugal. Plant Biosyst 143:597–608.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11263500903233250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Soliman T, Mourits MCM, van der Werf W et al (2012) Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe. PLoS One 7:e45505.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045505 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Spiecker H (2003) Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-temperate zone. J Environ Manag 67:55–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00187-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stephens S, Wagner M (2007) Forest plantations and biodiversity: a fresh perspective. J For 105:307–313Google Scholar
  120. Symstad AJ, Chapin FS, Wall DH et al (2003) Long-term and large-scale perspectives on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Bioscience 53:89.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0089,LTALSP]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tilman D (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80:1455–1474.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1455,TECOCI]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tilman D, Knops J, Wedin D et al (1997) The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science (80- ) 277:1300–1302.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5330.1300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tobner CM, Paquette A, Gravel D et al (2016) Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities. Ecol Lett 19:638–647.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12600 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Travis JMJ (2003) Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 270:467–473.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Underwood N, Inouye BD, Hambäck PA (2014) A conceptual framework for associational effects: when do neighbors matter and how would we know? Q Rev Biol 89:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Valentine LE, Stock W (2008) Food resources of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) in the Gnangara sustainability strategy study area. Unpublished report: Edith Cowan University and Department of Environment and Conservation. Gnangara Sustain Strateg Taskforce, Perth, Australia 2011:Google Scholar
  127. Valinger E, Fridman J (2011) Factors affecting the probability of windthrow at stand level as a result of Gudrun winter storm in southern Sweden. For Ecol Manag 262:398–403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van Der Werf GR, Randerson JT, Giglio L et al (2008) Climate controls on the variability of fires in the tropics and subtropics. Global Biogeochem Cycles 22:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Van Ruijven J, Berendse F (2010) Diversity enhances community recovery, but not resistance, after drought. J Ecol 98:81–86.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01603.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vehviläinen H, Koricheva J, Ruohomäki K et al (2006) Effects of tree stand species composition on insect herbivory of silver birch in boreal forests. Basic Appl Ecol 7:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2005.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Verheyen K, Vanhellemont M, Auge H et al (2015) Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations. R Swed Acad Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0685-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Walker BH (1992) Biodiversity and ecological redundancy biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conserv Biol 6:18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Walker B, Kinzig A, Langridge J (1999) Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function: the nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2:95–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100219900062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wang GG (2002) Fire severity in relation to canopy composition within burned boreal mixedwood stands. For Ecol Manag 163:85–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00529-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williams LJ, Paquette A, Cavender-Bares J et al (2017) Spatial complementarity in tree crowns explains overyielding in species mixtures. Nat Ecol Evol 1.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-016-0063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Woods A, Coates KD, Hamann A (2005) Is an unprecedented dothistroma needle blight epidemic related to climate change? Bioscience 55:761–769.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0761,IAUDNB]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yachi S, Loreau M (1999) Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:1463–1468.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.4.1463 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhang QH, Schlyter F (2004) Olfactory recognition and behavioural avoidance of angiosperm nonhost volatiles by conifer-inhabiting bark beetles. Agric For Entomol 6:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9555.2004.00202.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zhang Y, Chen HYH, Reich PB (2012) Forest productivity increases with evenness, species richness and trait variation: a global meta-analysis. J Ecol 100:742–749.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01944.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon Urgoiti Otazua
    • 1
  • Alain Paquette
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Forest Research (CFR)Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)MontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations