Transfer of Pressure

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
  • Mark I. M. Noble
  • Berend E. Westerhof


Aortic pressure, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and is also essential in the estimation input impedance and reflections. However, aortic pressure cannot be measured non-invasively. Peripheral pressures, such as finger pressure or radial pressure can be measured noninvasively, but differ significantly in both shape and magnitude from aortic pressure. Estimates of aortic pressure can be obtained by ‘transferring’ the peripheral pressure to aortic pressure. This transfer function is in the frequency domain requiring Fourier analysis. Discussion exists if a generalized transfer function, applicable to all patients and healthy subjects can be used, or if subject-specific transfer functions are required. When only mean, systolic and diastolic pressures are required a simplified method exists that relates distal and central values.


Aortic pressure Peripheral pressure Transfer function Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure mean pressure 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
    • 2
  • Mark I. M. Noble
    • 3
  • Berend E. Westerhof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam Cardiovascular SciencesVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular TechnologyEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of BioengineeringLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and TherapeuticsUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUnited Kingdom

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