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Structural Transformations of Permafrost before the Formation of the Yamal Craters

  • A. N. Khimenkov
  • D. O. Sergeev
  • Y. V. Stanilovskaya
  • A. N. Vlasov
  • D. B. Volkov-Bogorodsky
  • V. P. Merzlyakov
  • G. S. Tipenko
Chapter
Part of the Innovation and Discovery in Russian Science and Engineering book series (IDRSE)

Abstract

This article deals with the genesis of the gas discharge funnel located 30 km south of the Bovanenkovskoye gas condensate field and named the Yamal crater. A new approach contains the theory of the formation of similar funnels due to the structural transformations of the frozen massif under the influence of gases coming from the decomposition of gas hydrates. The leading role of lakes in the formation of local zones of dissociation of gas hydrates was declared. The estimation of the pressure that is necessary for migration of fluids in frozen rocks and the explosion that formed the Yamal crater was carried out.

Keywords

Gas hydrates Dissociation Fluids Gas discharge funnel Yamal crater Process stage Permafrost 

Legend of Math Symbols

h

Ejection depth, meters

ϕ

Angle of inclination to the conical surface, radians

H

Height of conical body, meters

R1

Radius of the base of the conical body, meters

R2

Upper radius of conical body, meters

[σ]

Maximum permissible tensile stress, mPa

[τ]

Maximum allowable shear stress, mPa

F

Vertical force of adhesion of the lateral surface to the ground, newtons

G

Strength of body weight, newtons

P0

Atmospheric pressure, newtons

ρмг

Frozen soil density, t/m3

g

Acceleration of gravity, m/s2

\( {p}_h^{\ast } \)

Critical ejection pressure from the depth, mPa

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Khimenkov
    • 1
  • D. O. Sergeev
    • 1
  • Y. V. Stanilovskaya
    • 1
  • A. N. Vlasov
    • 1
  • D. B. Volkov-Bogorodsky
    • 1
  • V. P. Merzlyakov
    • 1
  • G. S. Tipenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS (IEG RAS)MoscowRussia

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