Molecular Mechanism of Self-Organization in Biological Systems
Self-organization is the autonomous formation of complex structures from units of less complexity by local internal interactions. As a precise model of self-organization in nature, embryonic organogenesis is a process where different tissues and organs form in a growing embryo by the autonomous assembling of cells together.
Embryonic self-organization, which occurs at different levels of complexity from nano to macro levels in biological systems, is a highly efficient autonomous process. Self-organization is like robotics without wires and motors. It means the manufacturing program is embedded in materials themselves.
When we look at the manufacturing and construction process through different industries, there are major efficiency issues in energy consumption and labor work compared to autonomous formation and assembling of system’s parts during self-organization.
In this chapter, we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms behind embryonic organogenesis through the information storage in biomolecules. In addition, specifically, we discuss on molecular regulation of both differentiation and morphogenesis and their application in regenerative medicine. Deep understanding of regulatory mechanisms of self-organization can open new avenues in designing next generation smart, self-organizing materials and systems for both industrial and biomedical applications.
KeywordsSelf-organization Embryonic organogenesis Morphogenesis Protein folding Autonomous manufacturing Programmable materials 3D and 4D printing Cognitive chemistry
- 1.Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2008) Molecular biology of the cell, 5th edn. Garland Science Taylor and Francis Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 5.Gilbert S (2010) Developmental biology, 9th edn. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- 7.Huang G et al (2015) Molecular basis of embryonic stem cell self-renewal: from signaling pathway to pluripotency. Cell Mol Life Sci 72(9):1741–1757Google Scholar
- 8.Kauffman SA (1993) The origins of order: self-organization and selection in evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 9.Kauffman SA (1995) At home in the universe: the search for the laws of self-organization and complexity. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 10.Kauffman SA (2000) Investigations. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 15.Mark F, et al (2009) Cellular signal processing; an introduction to the molecular mechanism of signal transduction. Garland Science Tylor and Francis Group, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- 18.Nelson DL, Cox MM (2017) Lehninger principles of biochemistry, 7th edn. Freeman, W H& Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 22.Partiff DE, Shen MM (2014) From blastocyst to gastrula: gene regulatory networks of embryonic stem cells and early mouse embryogenesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1657):1–12Google Scholar
- 23.Rodwell VW, Bender D, Botham K, Kennelly P, Weil PA (2015) Harpers illustrated biochemistry, 30th edn. The McGraw Hill Education, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
- 24.Rossant J, Tam PP (2009) Blastocyst lineage formation, early embryonic asymmetries and axis patterning in the mouse. Development 136(5):701–713Google Scholar
- 30.Wartlick O et al (2014) Growth control by a moving morphogen gradient during Drosophila eye development. Biol Develop 141:1884–1893Google Scholar
- 32.Zernicka-Goetz M (2002) Patterning of the embryo: the first spatial decisions in the life of a mouse. Development 129(4):815–829.Google Scholar