Ideal fluids are a special fluid class, in which the density is constant and the frictional effect is neglected. Any phenomenon which is predicted by the theory of ideal fluid is due to the inertia effects. This chapter is devoted to the discussions on the characteristics of ideal-fluid flows in two- and three-dimensional circumstances. Nevertheless, for real fluids even liquids, the densities still experience variation under extremely high pressures, and the viscous effect plays a very significant role in the flow characteristics. Instead of interpreting the theory of ideal fluid as the discipline far away from practical reality, it does deliver insights into the flow features and in most cases provide the limiting situations, to which the results obtained from the theory of viscous flows must approach. This becomes more obvious if a moving fluid is in contact with a solid boundary, on which a very thin boundary layer exists. The theory of boundary-layer flows should deliver the results which coincide with those of ideal fluids on the edge of boundary layer.
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