The motions of a fluid can be described by using the time rates of change of physical variables defined on the fluid. To reach this end, within the continuum hypothesis, fluid as a continuum should a priori be assumed and the fundamentals of continuum mechanics need to be introduced, including the concepts of material body, reference and present configurations, and motion of a fluid element. Based on these, the material derivative of physical variable and deformation of a material may be defined to obtain the expressions of velocity and acceleration of a fluid element.
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