The knowledge about the characteristics of fluids at rest is referred to as fluid statics, or alternatively as hydrostatics, which is derived from the fact that the disciplines are used frequently for water at rest. The pressure of a still fluid in the gravitational field experiences a spatial variation, and the pressure distribution over the surface of a solid body with finite volume results in a net force acting on the body. This net force is termed differently as the hydrostatic or buoyant force in different circumstances, which are discussed in separate sections of this chapter. Specifically, the pressure distribution in a still fluid is discussed, followed by the estimations on the hydrostatic forces on a plane and a curved surface. Formation of the free surface of a still fluid with relations to the surface tension and capillary effect is presented. Buoyancy and stability analysis of a floating and submerged bodies in a still fluid are introduced by using the relative positions between the centers of gravity and buoyancy. Last, due to the same Cauchy stress state as that of a still fluid, the pressure variation of a fluid in rigid body motion is discussed.
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