Fundamental Concepts

  • Chung FangEmail author
Part of the Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment book series (STEGE)


Fluids at rest or in motion exhibit distinct characteristics from those of solids. Fundamental concepts which are essential to the understanding of fluid motions are explored in this chapter. First, distinctions between common fluids and solids with their underlying physical features are discussed. The Deborah number is introduced in order to take into account the rheological characteristics of matter under different external excitations. Equations in applied mechanics and fluid mechanics are classified into two categories to demonstrate their intrinsic features, followed by the method of analysis used in describing physical process. The assumption of fluid as a continuum plays a crucial role in defining fluid properties, with which theory of fluid motions may be established. Among the properties of a fluid are the viscosity and pressure relatively important. While the former is explored by using Newton’s law of viscosity, the latter is discussed by using Pascal’s law. Characteristics of fluid flows such as ideal flows versus viscous flows, incompressible flows versus compressible flows, and laminar flows versus turbulent flows are introduced, with their detailed discussions provided in the forthcoming chapters. A structural classification is given at the end to show the main topics of the book, which will be discussed separately in different chapters.

Further Reading

  1. H.A. Barnes, J.F. Hutton, K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. G.K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992)Google Scholar
  3. C. Cercignani, Rarefied Gas Dynamics: From Basic Concepts to Actual Calculations (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. D.F. Elger, B.C. Williams, C.T. Crowe, J.A. Roberson, Engineering Fluid Mechanics, 10th edn. (Wiley, New York, 2014)Google Scholar
  5. R.W. Fox, P.J. Pritchard, A.T. McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 7th edn. (Wiley, New York, 2009)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. P.M. Gerhart, R.J. Gross, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1985)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd edn. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005)Google Scholar
  8. E.A. Moelwyn-Hughnes, States of Matter (Oliver and Boyd, New York, 1961)Google Scholar
  9. B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, T.H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edn. (Wiley, New York, 1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. P. Oswald, Rheophysics: The Deformation and Flow of Matter (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009)Google Scholar
  11. R.H.F. Pao, Fluid Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1961)Google Scholar
  12. W.R. Schowalter, Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978)Google Scholar
  13. A.J. Smith, A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 2000)Google Scholar
  14. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids, and Other States of Matter, 3rd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993)Google Scholar
  15. R.I. Tanner, Engineering Rheology, revised edn. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations