Open channels are conduits in which a fluid has a free surface or its boundary is exposed essentially to the atmosphere, and open-channel flows are referred to as liquid flows with free surfaces. An open channel is not completely filled by a liquid in general, which introduces the concept of wetted perimeter. The motion of liquid in an open channel is almost always turbulent and unaffected by the surface tension, and is usually driven by the gravitational effect, with a hydrostatic pressure distribution in the vertical direction. Natural drainage of water through numerous creek and river systems, and flows in canals are typical examples. This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts in discussing the characteristics of open-channel flows.
- R.D. Blevins, Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1984)Google Scholar
- V.T. Chow, Open Channel Hydraulics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959)Google Scholar
- R.H. French, Open Channel Hydraulics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985)Google Scholar
- F.M. Henderson, Open Channel Flow (Macmillan, New York, 1966)Google Scholar
- R.H.F. Pao, Fluid Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1961)Google Scholar
- A.H. Shapiro, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Volume 1 (Ronald Press, New York, 1953)Google Scholar
- F.M. White, Fluid Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986)Google Scholar