Safety in the Transport of Hazardous Substances in Residential Areas: Cases of the Release of TIC (Chlorine, Propane, and Butane) at Low Temperatures

  • Mario Ciccotti
  • Ferdinando Spagnolo
  • Maura Palmery
Conference paper


Over the last years, several regulations have been used to rule the dynamics of the transport of dangerous substances. As a consequence, a number of regulations concerning the international railway transport of dangerous goods impacted on rail transport, Regulation 1907/2006 and Regulation 1272/2008, increased toxicological information assets and tools that can be addressed in the event of a health emergency. The purpose of this study is to analyze dispersion scenarios to describe the consequences of an intentional release of propane, butane, or chlorine. Every scenario is designed to outline a hypothetical terrorist attack in a railway station where the compounds are released in the form of aerosol, boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion, or explosion. The toxicological exposure dynamics were modeled by means of tools such as the ALOHA software (Environmental Protection Agency). The simulations show different dispersions for all considered chemicals: chlorine covers a larger area, liquid butane is the most persistent and much hazardous for inflammability and toxicity, and propane shows destructive shock wave power and relative acute outdoor toxicity. The exposure rates were eventually estimated using the “Green Book” parameters (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research).


Hazardous materials Dangerous goods Dual use Toxic industrial chemicals TIC 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Ciccotti
    • 1
  • Ferdinando Spagnolo
    • 2
  • Maura Palmery
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Technology of Drugs“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly

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