Early-Warning Crisis Management Systems for CBRNe Attacks in High-Threat Infrastructures

  • Paolo CastelliEmail author
Conference paper


Civil protection against accidents, due to toxic agents, is of high priority by the authorities involved. To this end, the following is first the description of a system that employs chemical detectors, used in conjunction with cameras in order to verify if an accident has actually happened. The Olympic Games or other similar events with large crowds require the preparation of contingency plans to ensure the public’s safety even in the event of a terrorist attack. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive substances can be used in these attacks, and it is useful to simulate the behavior of the population with models. The aim is to reliably understand the risks associated with possible threat scenarios in order to protect critical infrastructures and plan event security. It also presents a model of the American national health system that intention is to be able to cope with accident scenarios involving many victims. The National Security Department has prepared 15 incident scenarios, each of which provides hypotheses based on which medical and logistic effects are described. Finally, there is a study that deals with the possibility of protecting people in shelters equipped with special filtration systems.


SAW: Surface acoustic wave detectors 


  1. 1.
    Policastro, A.: Advancements in the Protect Early-Warning Crisis Management System. 978-1-4244-1978-4/08/$25.00 @2008 IEEEGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beni, G., Wang, J.: Swarm intelligence in cellular robotic systems. In: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Workshop on Robots and Biological Systems, Tuscany, Italy, June 1989Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Izquierdo, J., Montalvo, I., Perez, R., Fuertes, V.: Forecasting pedestrian evacuation times by using swarm intelligence. Physica A. 388(7), 1213–1220 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Department of Homeland Security: National Preparedness Guidelines, September 2007. Available at: Accessed 27 Mar 2008
  5. 5.
    Scheulen, J., Thanner, M., Hsu, E., Latimer, C., Brown, J., Kelen, G.: Electronic mass casualty assessment and planning scenarios (EMCAPS): development and application of computer modeling to selected national planning scenarios for high-consequence events. Ann. Emerg. Med. 53(2), 226–232 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langer, S., Ramalho, O., Derbez, M., Riberon, J., Kirchner, S., Mandin, C.: Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics. Atmos. Environ. 128, 82–91 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Irga, P.J., Torpy, F.R.: Indoor air pollutants in occupational buildings in a subtropical climate: comparison among ventilation types. Build. Environ. 98, 190–199 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, C., Zhao, B., Yang, X.: Preventing the entry of outdoor particles with the indoor positive pressure control method: analysis of influencing factors and cost. Build. Environ. 46, 1167–1173 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ward, M., Siegel, J.A., Corsi, R.L.: The effectiveness of stand alone air cleaners for shelter-in-place. Indoor Air. 15, 127–134 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Masson, O., Ringer, W., Mal, H., et al.: Size distributions of airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident at several places in Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 10995–11003 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kulmala, I., Salmela, H., Kalliohaka, T., Zwe, T., Smolarkiewicz, M., Taipale, A., Kataja, J.: A tool for determining sheltering efficiency of mechanically ventilated buildings against outdoor hazardous agents. Build. Environ. 106, 245–253 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fire Service DepartmentRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations