Explosion Risks Inside Pharmaceutical, Agro-alimentary and Energetic Industries as a Consequence of Critical Dust Conditions: A Numerical Model to Prevent These Accidents

  • Riccardo Rossi
  • Jean-François Ciparisse
  • Pasquale Gaudio
  • Andrea Malizia
Conference paper


The dust explosion is the rapid combustion of dust clouds that happens only in particular condition, described by the dust explosion pentagon. It is one of the most critical safety issues in industrial plants, where there are a large production, mobilization and storage of dust such as pharmaceutical and food industries. This phenomenon causes every year about 2000 explosions, and many are the accidents that have involved injuries and deaths. Therefore, it is clear the importance of developing new methods and technologies to prevent and mitigate this kind of accidents. This work shows how computational fluid dynamics can help in dust explosion prevention. A multiphase numerical simulation of a wheat silo is taken into account. During the filling of a silo, there is a temporal interval where the dust concentration reaches the explosibility range. Therefore, the authors evaluate where and when the silos may explode.


Dust explosion Industrial safety CFD 


  1. 1.
    Giby, J., CSB Hazard Investigation Team: Combustible dusts: a serious industrial hazard. J. Hazard. Mater. 142(3), 589–591 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eckhoff, R.K.: Dust explosions in the process industries (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yuan, Z., Khakzad, N., Khan, F., Amyotte, P.: Dust explosion: a threat to the process industries. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 98, 57–71 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Honkeiko colliery mining disaster. Encyclopedia Britannica, London (2009).
  5. 5.
    U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board: Investigation report: sugar dust explosion and fire. September 2009Google Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Abbasi, T., Abbasi, S.: Dust explosions-cases, causes, consequences, and control. J. Hazard. Mater. 140(1–2), 7–44 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amyotte, P.R., Eckhoff, R.K.: Dust explosion causation, prevention and mitigation: an overview. J. Chem. Health Saf. 15–28 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Denkevits, A., Dorofeev, S.: Dust explosion hazard in ITER: explosion indices of fine graphite and tungsten dusts and their mixtures. Fusion Eng. Des. 75–79, 1135–1139 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malizia, A., Poggi, L.A., Ciparisse, J.-F., Rossi, R., Bellecci, C., Gaudio, P.: A review of dangerous dust in fusion reactors: from its creation to its resuspension in case of LOCA and LOVA. Energies. 9(8), 578 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ciparisse, J., Malizia, A., Poggi, L., Gelfusa, M., Murari, A., Mancini, A., Gaudio, P.: First 3D numerical simulations validated with experimental measurements during a LOVA reproduction inside the new facility STARDUST-Upgrade. Fusion Eng. Des. (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abuwser, M., Amyotte, P., Khan, F., Morrison, L.: An optimal level of dust explosion risk management: framework and application. J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 26(6), 1530–1541 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yuan, Z., Khakzad, N., Khan, F., Amyotte, P., Reniers, G.: Risk-based design of safety measures to prevent and mitigate dust explosion hazards. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52(50), 18095–18108 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rotter, J.M.: Guide for the economic design of circular metal silos. Taylor & Francis, Routledge (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Brennen, C.E.: Fundamentals of multiphase flows. Cambridge University Press, Pasadena, CA (2005). Dust explosions – the basics.
  17. 17.
    Murillo, C., Dufand, O., Bardin-Monnier, N., Lopez, O., Munoz, F., Perrin, L.: Dust explosions: CFD modeling as a tool to characterize the relevant parameters of the dust dispersion. Chem. Eng. Sci. 104, 103–116 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Rossi
    • 1
  • Jean-François Ciparisse
    • 1
  • Pasquale Gaudio
    • 1
  • Andrea Malizia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Rome “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedicine and PreventionUniversity of Rome “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations