CD19 Deficiency due to Genetic Defects in the CD19 and CD81 Genes

  • Menno C. van ZelmEmail author
  • Ismail Reisli
Part of the Rare Diseases of the Immune System book series (RDIS)


CD19 is a transmembrane protein specifically expressed on B cells and acts together with CD21, CD81, and CD225 to reduce the threshold for B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. To date, 11 patients with childhood-onset hypogammaglobulinemia have been identified with CD19 deficiency due to mutations in the CD19 or CD81 genes. The patients have circulating B cells that lack CD19 expression and are impaired in BCR-induced signal transduction. In addition to recurrent respiratory infections, several patients suffer from autoimmunity and IgA nephropathy. These non-infectious complications might arise from altered signal transduction thresholds. Although rare, genetic defects in CD19 or CD81 should be considered in patients with childhood onset of autosomal recessive antibody deficiency.


Primary antibody deficiency CD19 CD81 B cell B-cell antigen receptor Autoreactivity Vaccination responses 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical SchoolMonash University and The Alfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Meram Medical FacultyNecmettin Erbakan UniversityKonyaTurkey

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