Human Interaction in Learning Ecosystems Based on Open Source Solutions

  • Alicia García-HolgadoEmail author
  • Francisco J. García-Peñalvo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10924)


Technological ecosystems are software solutions based on the integration of heterogeneous software components through information flows in order to provide a set of services that each component separately does not offer, as well as to improve the user experience. In particular, the learning ecosystems are technological ecosystems focused on learning and knowledge management in different contexts such as educational institutions or companies. The ecosystem metaphor comes from biology field and it has transferred to technology field to highlight the evolving component of software. Taking into account the definitions of natural ecosystems, a technological ecosystem is a set of people and software components that play the role of organisms; a series of elements that allow the ecosystem works (hardware, networks, etc.); and a set of information flows that establish the relationships between the software components, and between these and the people involved in the ecosystem. Human factor has a main role in the definition and development of this kind of solutions. In previous works, a metamodel has been defined and validated to support Model-Driven Development of learning ecosystems based on Open Source software, but the interaction in the learning ecosystem should be defined in order to complete the proposal to improve the development process of technological ecosystems. This paper presents the definition and modelling of the human interaction in learning ecosystems.


Learning ecosystems Human interaction Metamodel Information systems Software engineering 



This research work has been carried out within the University of Salamanca PhD Programme on Education in the Knowledge Society scope ( and was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport under a FPU fellowship (FPU014/04783).

This work has been partially funded by the Spanish Government Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness throughout the DEFINES project (Ref. TIN2016-80172-R) and the Ministry of Education of the Junta de Castilla y León (Spain) throughout the T-CUIDA project (Ref. SA061P17).


  1. 1.
    UNESCO: UNESCO World Report: Towards Knowledge Societies. UNESCO Publishing, Paris (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    OECD: Knowledge Management in the Learning Society. OECD Publishing, Paris (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rubio Royo, E., Cranfield McKay, S., Nelson-Santana, J.C., Delgado Rodríguez, R.N., Ocon-Carreras, A.A.: Web knowledge turbine as a proposal for personal and professional self-organisation in complex times: application to higher education. J. Inf. Technol. Res. (JITR) 11, 70–90 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nonaka, I., Takeuchi, H.: The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hargreaves, A.: Teaching in the Knowledge Society: Education in the Age of Insecurity. Teachers College Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Llorens-Largo, F.: Technology as driving force of the educative innovation: strategy and institutional policy at “Universidad de Alicante”. Arbor 185, 21–32 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Llorens-Largo, F.: University library as disseminator force of the educative innovation: strategy and institutional policy at Universidad de Alicante. ARBOR Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura 187, 89–100 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Laudon, K.C., Laudon, J.P.: Essentials of Management Information Systems: Transforming Business and Management. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Langefors, B.: Information systems theory. Inf. Syst. 2, 207–219 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen, W., Chang, E.: Exploring a digital ecosystem conceptual model and its simulation prototype. In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2007, pp. 2933–2938 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dhungana, D., Groher, I., Schludermann, E., Biffl, S.: Software ecosystems vs. natural ecosystems: learning from the ingenious mind of nature. In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Volume, pp. 96–102. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laanpere, M.: Digital Learning ecosystems: rethinking virtual learning environments in the age of social media. In: IFIP-OST 2012: Open and Social Technologies for Networked Learning, Taillin (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pata, K.: Meta-design framework for open learning ecosystems. Mash-UP Personal Learning Environments (MUP/PLE 2011), Open University of London (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu, E., Deng, S.: Understanding software ecosystems: a strategic modeling approach. In: Jansen, S., Bosch, J., Campbell, P., Ahmed, F. (eds.) IWSECO-2011 Software Ecosystems 2011. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Software Ecosystems, Brussels, Belgium, 7 June 2011, pp. 65–76. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Aachen (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mens, T., Claes, M., Grosjean, P., Serebrenik, A.: Studying evolving software ecosystems based on ecological models. In: Mens, T., Serebrenik, A., Cleve, A. (eds.) Evolving Software Systems, pp. 297–326. Springer, Berlin (2014). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lungu, M.F.: Reverse Engineering Software Ecosystems. Università della Svizzera Italiana (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lungu, M.F.: Towards reverse engineering software ecosystems. In: IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, ICSM 2008, pp. 428–431. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berthelemy, M.: Definition of a learning ecosystem. In: Learning Conversations, vol. 2013 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: The evolution of the technological ecosystems: an architectural proposal to enhancing learning processes. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technological Ecosystem for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2013), Salamanca, Spain, 14–15 November 2013, pp. 565–571. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Architectural pattern for the definition of eLearning ecosystems based on Open Source developments. In: Sierra-Rodríguez, J.L., Dodero-Beardo, J.M., Burgos, D. (eds.) Proceedings of 2014 International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain, 12–14 November 2014, pp. 93–98. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2014). IEEE Catalog Number CFP1486T-ARTGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., García-Holgado, A. (eds.): Open Source Solutions for Knowledge Management and Technological Ecosystems. IGI Global, Hershey (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Preliminary validation of the metamodel for developing learning ecosystems. In: Dodero, J.M., Ibarra Sáiz, M.S., Ruiz Rube, I. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2017), Cádiz, Spain, 18–20 October 2017. ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Llorens-Largo, F., Molina, R., Compañ, P., Satorre, R.: Technological ecosystem for open education. In: Neves-Silva, R., Tsihrintzis, G.A., Uskov, V., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (eds.) Smart Digital Futures 2014, vol. 262, pp. 706–715. IOS Press (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Architectural pattern to improve the definition and implementation of eLearning ecosystems. Sci. Comput. Program. 129, 20–34 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alspaugh, T.A., Asuncion, H.U., Scacchi, W.: The role of software licenses in open architecture ecosystems. In: IWSECO@ ICSR (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., Hernández-García, Á., Conde-González, M.Á., Fidalgo-Blanco, Á., Sein-Echaluce, M.L., Alier, M., Llorens-Largo, F., Iglesias-Pradas, S.: Learning services-based technological ecosystems. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, pp. 467–472. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chopra, K., Leemans, R., Kumar, P., Simons, H.: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Policy Responses. Island Press, Washington, DC (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Millenium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC (2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boehm, B.: Some future trends and implications for systems and software engineering processes. Syst. Eng. 9, 1–19 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dijkstra, E.W.: Software engineering: as it should be. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Software Engineering, Munich, Germany, September 1979, pp. 442–448. IEEE Computer Society Press (1979)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sutcliffe, A., Fickas, S., Sohlberg, M.M.: Personal and contextual requirements engineering. In: 13th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering (RE 2005), pp. 19–28 (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goncalves da Silva, E., Ferreira Pires, L., van Sinderen, M.J.: Supporting dynamic service composition at runtime based on end-user requirements. In: Dustdar, S., Hauswirth, M., Hierro, J.J., Soriano, J., Urmetzer, F., Möller, K., Rivera, I. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Workshop on User-Generated Services, UGS 2009, located at the 7th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing, ICSOC 2009. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Aachen (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Booher, H.R.: Introduction: Human Systems Integration. In: Booher, H.R. (ed.) Handbook of Human Systems Integration, pp. 1–30. Wiley, Hoboken (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aparna, V., Anh Nguyen, D., Shang, G., Guttorm, S.: A systematic mapping study on requirements engineering in software ecosystems. J. Inf. Technol. Res. (JITR) 11, 49–69 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Patrón arquitectónico para la definición de ecosistemas de eLearning basados en desarrollos open source. In: Rodríguez, J.L.S., Beardo, J.M.D., Burgos, D. (eds.) Proceedings of 2014 International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain, 12–14 November 2014, pp. 137–142. Universidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR), Logroño (2014)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fowler, M.: Analysis Patterns: Reusable Object Models. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    García-Holgado, A.: GRIAL 2.0 Una propuesta de integración de servicios y aplicaciones web en un portal académico personalizable. Department of Computer Science and Automatic Control. University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain (2011)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., Rodríguez-Conde, M.J., Seoane-Pardo, A.M., Conde-González, M.Á., Zangrando, V., García-Holgado, A.: GRIAL (GRupo de investigación en InterAcción y eLearning), USAL. Revista Iberoamericana de Informática Educativa, pp. 85–94. ADIE (2012)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Orueta, J.L., Pavón, L.M. (eds.): Libro Blanco de la Universidad Digital 2010. Ariel. Colección Fundación Telefónica. Cuaderno 11 (2008)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., Zangrando, V., García-Holgado, A., Conde-González, M.Á., Seoane-Pardo, A.M., Alier, M., Janssen, J., Griffiths, D., Mykowska, A., Alves, G.R.: TRAILER project overview: Tagging, recognition and acknowledgment of informal learning experiences. In: Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE), Andorra La Vella, Andorra, 29–31 October 2012, pp. 1–6. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2012). IEEE Catalog Number CFP1486T-ARTGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., Conde-González, M.Á., Zangrando, V., García-Holgado, A., Seoane-Pardo, A.M., Alier, M., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Vogten, H., Griffiths, D., Mykowska, A., Alves, G.R., Minović, M.: TRAILER project (Tagging, recognition, acknowledgment of informal learning experiences). A Methodology to make visible learners’ informal learning activities to the institutions. J. Univ. Comput. Sci. 19, 1661–1683 (2013)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J., Conde, M.Á., Johnson, M., Alier, M.: Knowledge co-creation process based on informal learning competences tagging and recognition. Int. J. Hum. Capital Inf. Technol. Prof. (IJHCITP) 4, 18–30 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Buschmann, F., Meunier, R., Rohnert, H., Sommerlad, P., Stal, M.: Pattern-oriented Software Architecture: A System of Patterns. Wiley, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Methodology. In: Sprachen, E.K. (ed.) Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus. Cambridge University Press (2013)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F., Lorensen, W.E.: Object-Oriented Modeling and Design. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J., Rodríguez-Conde, M.J.: Definition of a technological ecosystem for scientific knowledge management in a PhD programme. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2015), Porto, Portugal, 7–9 October 2015, pp. 695–700. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Education in knowledge society: a new PhD programme approach. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technological Ecosystem for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2013), Salamanca, Spain, 14–15 November 2013, pp. 575-577. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mellor, S.J., Scott, K., Uhl, A., Weise, D.: Model-driven architecture. In: Bruel, J.-M., Bellahsene, Z. (eds.) OOIS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2426, pp. 290–297. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). Scholar
  49. 49.
    Atkinson, C., Kuhne, T.: Model-driven development: a metamodeling foundation. IEEE Softw. 20, 36–41 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: Learning ecosystem metamodel quality assurance. In: Rocha, Á., Correia, A., Adeli, H., Reis, L., Costanzo, S. (eds.) WorldCIST 2018. AISC, vol. 745, pp. 787–796. Springer, Cham (2018). Scholar
  52. 52.
    King, W.R.: Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. In: King, W.R. (ed.) Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning, vol. 4, pp. 3–13. Springer, US (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rubio, E., Ocón, A., Galán, M., Marrero, S., Nelson, J.C.: A personal and corporative process-oriented knowledge manager: Suricata model. In: European University Information Systems (EUNIS) (2004)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marrero, S., Ocón, A., Galán, M., Rubio, E.: Methodology for the generation and maintenance of a “base of procedures” in process-oriented knowledge management strategy. In: European University Information Systems (EUNIS) (2005)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marrero, S.R., Nelson, J.C., Galán, M., Ocón, A., Rubio, E.: Metodología para organizar, recuperar y compartir recursos de información y conocimiento en un centro I+D+i en la Plataforma Suricata (2005)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J., Hernández-García, Á., Llorens-Largo, F.: Analysis and Improvement of Knowledge Management Processes in Organizations Using the Business Process Model Notation. In: Palacios-Marqués, D., Ribeiro Soriano, D., Huarng, K.H. (eds.) GIKA 2015. LNBIP, vol. 222, pp. 93–101. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  57. 57.
    García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J.: A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems. In: Zaphiris, P., Ioannou, A. (eds.) LCT 2017. LNCS, vol. 10295, pp. 100–109. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicia García-Holgado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco J. García-Peñalvo
    • 1
  1. 1.GRIAL Research Group, Computer Sciences Department, Research Institute for Educational SciencesUniversity of SalamancaSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations