Advertisement

Constructing Arctic Energy Resources: The Case of the Canadian North, 1921–1980

  • Paul Warde
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology book series (PSHST)

Abstract

This chapter explores how the future of Arctic hydrocarbons was narrated and imagined, and the real effects stories have had on the rocks, inhabitants, hydrocarbon reservoirs and ecologies of the north. It takes the case of the Canadian Arctic as a prospective zone of hydrocarbon exploitation since the 1940s, and especially in the peak era of exploration in the late 1960s and 1970s. Arctic hydrocarbons were presented as a treasure house for Canada, for export income, national economic development and security. Yet, very little has been extracted. It examines how resources were mobilized by presenting futures in the form of estimates of gas and oil reserves, infrastructure, demand and prices, and geopolitics; and related forms of the sociability among actors such as firms and government.

Keywords

Canadian Arctic Hydrocarbon Prospecting Resource extraction 

References

  1. Avango, Dag, Annika E. Nilsson, and Peder Roberts. “Assessing Arctic Futures: Voices, Resources and Governance.” The Polar Journal 3, no. 2 (2013): 431–446.Google Scholar
  2. Ayres, Eugene, and C.A. Scarlott. Energy Sources—The Wealth of the World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.Google Scholar
  3. Belgrave, Roger. “A U.K. Company’s Approach to Arctic petroleum.” In Le pétrole et le gaz arctiques: Problémes et perspectives, edited by J. Malaurie, 882–891. Paris: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, Thomas R. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, 2 vols. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. Berndt, Ernst R. “Forecasting North American Energy Demand: Issues and Problems.” In The Mackenzie Pipeline: Arctic Gas and Canadian Energy Policy, edited by Peter H. Pearse, 71–79. Toronto: McClelland and Pearse, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. Bird, Kenneth J., Ronald R. Charpentier, Donald L. Gautier, David W. Houseknecht, Timothy R. Klett, Janet K. Pitman, Thomas E. Moore, Christopher J. Schenk, Marilyn E. Tennyson, and Craig J. Wandrey. “Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal; Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle,” U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008–3049.Google Scholar
  7. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012. Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, Paul G. “Energy, Profits, and the National Interest: Three Perspectives on Arctic Natural Gas.” In The Mackenzie Pipeline: Arctic Gas and Canadian Energy Policy, edited by Peter H. Pearse, 47–70. Toronto: McClelland and Pearse, 1974.Google Scholar
  9. Bregha, F. “Canada’s Natural Gas Industry.” In The Big Tough Expensive Job: Imperial Oil and the Canadian Economy, edited by J. Laxer and A. Martin, 69–93. Don Mills, ON: Porcépic, 1976. Google Scholar
  10. Browning, J.M., “The Mackenzie Delta in Canada—Its Geological, Economic and Political Significance.” In Exploration and Economics of the Petroleum Industry: New Ideas, New Methods, New Developments, edited by Victoria S. Cameron, 95–110. New York: Matthew Bender, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. Business Weekly, January 4, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. Chastko, P. “Anonymity and Ambivalence: The Canadian and American Oil Industry and the Emergence of Continental Oil.” Journal of American History 99, no. 1 (2012): 166–176.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, C., C. Hetherington, C. O’Neil, and J. Zavitz. Breaking the Ice with Finesse: Oil and Gas Exploration in the Canadian Arctic. Calgary: Arctic Institute of North America, 1997.Google Scholar
  14. Coates, Peter A. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation and the Frontier. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  15. Currie, R.G.S. “Panarctic: Successful Exploration of the High Arctic.” In Le pétrole et le gaz arctiques. Problémes et perspectives, edited by J. Malaurie, 892–907. Paris: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. Davies, R.A. Arctic Eldorado: A Dramatic Report on Canada’s Northland—The Greatest Unexploited Region in the World—With a Workable Four Year Plan. Ryerson: Toronto, 1944.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, J. Canadian Energy Prospects. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Canada’s Economic Prospects, March 1957.Google Scholar
  18. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries.Google Scholar
  19. Edgington, A.N. “Petroleum Potential of the Canadian Arctic Islands.” In Exploration and Economics of the Petroleum Industry: New Ideas, New Methods, New Developments, edited by Victoria S. Cameron, 111–133. New York: Matthew Bender, 1971.Google Scholar
  20. Garrett, J.N. “Conventional Hydrocarbons in the United States Arctic: An Industry Appraisal.” In United States Arctic Interests: The 1980s and 1990s, edited by W.E. Westermeyer and K.M. Shusterich, 39–58. New York: Springer, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. Good, D. “The Wealth of the Northlands. II. Non-renewable Resources.” In Geography of the Northlands, edited by G.H.T. Kimble and D. Good, 237–272. New York: Wiley, 1953.Google Scholar
  22. Gray, Earle. “Why Canada Needs the Arctic Gas Pipeline.” In The Mackenzie Pipeline: Arctic Gas and Canadian Energy Policy, edited by Peter H. Pearse, 33–46. Toronto: McClelland and Pearse, 1974.Google Scholar
  23. Gray, Earle. Forty Years in the Public Interest: A History of the National Energy Board. Ottawa: Douglas & McIntyre, 2000.Google Scholar
  24. Grossman, P.Z. U.S. Energy Policy and the Pursuit of Failure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  25. Haglund, D.K. “Maritime Transport in Support of Arctic Resource Development.” In Arctic Energy Resources, edited by Louis Rey, 231–249. Amsterdam: Christian Berhrens, 1983.Google Scholar
  26. Harrison, Christopher. “Industry Perspectives on Barriers, Hurdles, and Irritants Preventing Development of Frontier Energy in Canada’s Arctic Islands.” Arctic 59 (2006): 238–242.Google Scholar
  27. Hetherington, Charles, interview by Nadine Mackenzie, June 1983, 10. http://www.glenbow.org/collections/search/findingAids/archhtm/extras/piohp/PIOHP_Hetherington_Charles.pdf.
  28. Hill, P. and R. Vielvoye. Energy in Crisis: A Guide to World Oil Supply and Demand and Alternative Resources. London: Robert Yeatman, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Hoos, R.A.W. “Beaufort Sea Energy Production and Environmental Protection.” In Arctic Energy Resources, edited by Louis Rey, 303–312. Amsterdam: Christian Berhrens, 1983.Google Scholar
  30. Ion, Daniel C. “Arctic Oil and the World—One Perspective.” In Arctic Geology, edited by Max G. Pitcher, 617–623. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1972.Google Scholar
  31. Imperial Oil Annual Reports. Google Scholar
  32. Kaustinen, O.N. “A Polar Gas Pipeline for the Canadian Arctic.” In Arctic Energy Resources, edited by Louis Rey, 218–255. Amsterdam: Christian Berhrens, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. Keith, F., and David W. Fischer. “Assessing the Development Decision-Making Process: A Case Study of Canadian Frontier Petroleum Development.” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 36 (1977): 147–164.Google Scholar
  34. Kennedy, Tom. Quest: Canada’s Search for Arctic Oil. Edmonton: Reidmore, 1988.Google Scholar
  35. King Hubbert, M. “Energy from Fossil Fuels.” Science 109 (February 4 1949): 103–109.Google Scholar
  36. King Hubbert, M. Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels. Houston: Shell Development Company, 1956.Google Scholar
  37. King Hubbert, M. “The Energy Resources of the Earth.” Scientific American 225 (1971): 60–70.Google Scholar
  38. Lyon, J. Dome: The Rise and Fall of the House That Jack Built. Scarborough, ON: Avon, 1983.Google Scholar
  39. Masterson, D.M. “The Arctic Islands Adventure and Panarctic Oils Ltd.” Cold Regions Science and Technology 85 (2013): 1–14.Google Scholar
  40. Maxwell, Judith. Energy from the Arctic: Facts and Issues. Washington, DC: Canadian-American Committee of C.D. Howe Research Institute (Montreal) and National Planning Association (Washington), 1973.Google Scholar
  41. McCracken, A.D., T.P. Poulton, E. Macey, J.M. Monro Gray, and G.S. Nowlan. “Arctic Oil and Gas.” Popular Geoscience (2007), http://www.gac.ca/PopularGeoscience/factsheets/ArcticOilandGas_e.pdf.
  42. McDougall, I. “The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Hearings of the National Energy Board.” In The Big Tough Expensive Job. Imperial Oil and the Canadian Economy, edited by J. Laxer and A. Martin, 129–157. Don Mills, ON: Porcépic, 1976. Google Scholar
  43. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Resources. An Energy Policy for Canada—Phase 1. Volume II. Appendices. Ottawa, 1973.Google Scholar
  44. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Resources. Oil and Natural Gas Resources of Canada 1976, Report EP-77-1.Google Scholar
  45. Ministry of Northern Development and Indian Affairs. Prospectus. Oil & Gas North of 60. Ottawa, 1968.Google Scholar
  46. Ministry of Northern Development and Indian Affairs. Oil and Gas North of 60. A Report of Activities in 1969. Ottawa, 1970.Google Scholar
  47. Ministry of Northern Development and Indian Affairs. Oil and Gas North of 60. A Report of Activities in 1977. Ottawa, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Schedule of Wells 1920–1979. Ottawa, 1990.Google Scholar
  49. Nassichuk, W.W. “Petroleum Potential in Arctic North America and Greenland.” In Arctic Energy Resources, edited by Louis Rey, 51–88. Amsterdam: Christian Berhrens, 1983.Google Scholar
  50. National Energy Board. Energy Supply and Demand in Canada and Export Demand for Canadian Energy 1966 to 1990. Ottawa, 1969.Google Scholar
  51. Netschert, B.C. The Future Supply of Oil and Gas: A Study of the Availability of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids in the United States in the Period Through 1975. Baltimore: Resources for the Future, John Hopkins University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  52. New York Times, July 2, 1971.Google Scholar
  53. Odell, P.R. and K.E. Rosing. The Future of Oil: World Resources and Use. 2nd edition. London: Kogan Page, 1983.Google Scholar
  54. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. International Petroleum Monthly December 2010, 2011.Google Scholar
  55. Palmer C. Putnam. Energy in the Future. New York: Van Norstrand, 1953.Google Scholar
  56. Panarctic. 17th Annual Report, 1984.Google Scholar
  57. Pitcher, Max G., edited by Arctic Geology. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1972.Google Scholar
  58. Pratt, Wallace. Oil in the Earth. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1942.Google Scholar
  59. Pratt, Wallace E. “Toward a Philosophy of Oil-Finding.” American Association of Petroleum Geology Bulletin 36 no. 12 (1952): 2231–2236.Google Scholar
  60. Quirin, G.D. Economics of Oil and Gas Development in Northern Canada. Ministry for Northern Affairs, 1962.Google Scholar
  61. Reed, John C. Oil and Gas Development in Arctic North America Through 2000. Arctic Institute of North America, Research paper No. 62, September 1973.Google Scholar
  62. Rohmer, R. The Arctic Imperative: An Overview of the Energy Crisis. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973.Google Scholar
  63. Scott, Anthony, and Peter H. Pearse. “The Political Economy of Energy Development in Canada.” In The Mackenzie Pipeline. Arctic Gas and Canadian Energy Policy, edited by Peter H. Pearse, 1–32. Toronto: McClelland and Pearse, 1974.Google Scholar
  64. Stabler, J.C., and M.R. Olfert. “The Political Economy of the Western Arctic.” Canadian Public Policy 6 (1980): 374–388.Google Scholar
  65. Steele, Henry B. “Supply and Demand Applied to North American Arctic.” In Arctic Geology, edited by Max G. Pitcher, 611–616. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1972.Google Scholar
  66. Tyler, Priest. “Hubbert’s Peak: The Great Debate Over the End of Oil.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 44 (2014): 37–79.Google Scholar
  67. Unger, Richard W., and John Thistle. Energy Consumption in Canada in the 19th and 20th Centuries. A Statistical Outline. Naples: Consiglio Nzionale delle Ricerche, 2013.Google Scholar
  68. Vietor, Richard H.K. Energy Policy in America Since 1945. A Study of Business-Government Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  69. Weeks, C.L. “The Next Hundred Years Energy Demand and Sources of Supply.” Journal of the Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists 9 no. 5 (May 1961): 141–157.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Warde
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of HistoryUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations