Advertisement

Arctic Modernism: New Urbanisation Models for the Soviet Far North in the 1960s

  • Ekaterina Kalemeneva
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology book series (PSHST)

Abstract

Industrialisation and social transformations changed the landscapes of the Soviet Arctic and stimulated discussions about the models of its domestication. Numerous industrial towns in the Soviet Far North in the 1930s were established next to Gulag labour camps. The attempt of technical, social and visual re-conceptualisation of urban space in the Soviet Arctic related to several reforms of the post-Stalin period. This chapter analyses how Leningrad architects since the 1950s used modernist urban projects for the realisation of their professional and personal ambitions trying to create a new conception of a “normal city” in extreme climate. While most were not implemented, their appearance shows the shift of the attitude toward the North in the USSR as well as the controversial changes of experts’ position.

Keywords

Soviet Far North Leningrad architects Industrialisation Landscape Urban modernism 

References

  1. 20 S’ezd KPSS. 14–25 Fevralya 1956 Goda. Stenograficheskij Otchet. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1956.Google Scholar
  2. Agafonov, Konstantin. “Zhiloy Kompleks dlya Arcticheskogo Poberezhya.” Arkhitectura SSSR, no. 3 (1960): 35–37. Google Scholar
  3. Anker, Peder. “The Closed World of Ecological Architecture.” The Journal of Architecture 10, no. 5 (2005): 527–552.Google Scholar
  4. Attfield, Don. “June in January? Plastic Frobisher Dome May Change Arctic Life.” Ottawa Citizen, November 20, 1958.Google Scholar
  5. Avango, Dag, Annika E. Nilsson, and Peder Roberts. “Assessing Arctic Futures: Voices, Resources and Governance.” Polar Journal 3, no. 2 (2013): 431–446.Google Scholar
  6. Barenberg, Alan. Gulag Town, Company Town: Forced Labor and Its Legacy in Vorkuta. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, Vadim. Peterburgskaya Neoklassika 1900–1910-kh gg. Arkhitekturnye Konkursy: Zodchie, Tsekh, Gorod. St. Petersburg: IPK « NP-Print », 2005.Google Scholar
  8. Bataeva, Tatyana. “Osobennosti Uslovii Zhizni Naseleniya Magadanskoi Oblasti.” Naselenie i Trudovye Resursy Severo-Vostoka SSSR. Trudy Severo-Vostochnogo Komplexnogo NII. No. 27. (Moscow, 1968): 24–38.Google Scholar
  9. Bittner, Stephen V. The Many Lives of Khrushchev’s Thaw: Experience and Memory in Moscow’s Arbat. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  10. Bittner, Stephen V. “Remembering the Avant-Garde: Moscow Architects and the ‘Rehabilitation’ of Constructivism, 1961–64.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 2, no. 3 (Summer 2001): 553–576.Google Scholar
  11. Boym, Svetlana. The Future of Nostalgia. New York: Basic Books, 2001.Google Scholar
  12. Bruno, Andy. The Nature of Soviet Power: An Arctic Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  13. Castillo, Greg. Cold War on the Home Front: The Soft Power of Midcentury Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  14. Cherskiy, Nikolay. “Sver Zhdet, Sever Trebuet!” Izvestiya, March 18, 1960.Google Scholar
  15. Decker, Julie. Modern North: Architecture of the Frozen Edge. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  16. Drozdov, Pavel, and Ivan Sebekin. Proektirovanie krupnopanel’nykh zdanii. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu, 1967.Google Scholar
  17. Dybbroe, Susanne, Jens Dahl, and Ludger Müller-Wille. “Dynamics of Arctic Urbanization—Introduction.” Acta Borealia 27, no. 2 (2010): 120–124.Google Scholar
  18. Engerman, David C. “Introduction: Histories of the Future and the Futures of History.” The American Historical Review 117, no. 5 (2012): 1402–1410.Google Scholar
  19. Farish, Matthew, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. “High Modernism in the Arctic: Planning Frobisher Bay and Inuvik.” Journal of Historical Geography 35 (2009): 517–544.Google Scholar
  20. Fokin, Aleksandr. ‘Kommunizm ne za Gorami. Obrazy Budushchego u Vlasti i Naseleniya SSSR na Rubezhe 1950–1960kh Godov. Chelyabinsk: Entsiklopediya, 2012.Google Scholar
  21. Frank, Susanna. “Mythos of the North Pole: The Top of the World.” Nordlit 35 (2015): 3–12.Google Scholar
  22. Gorsuch, Anne E., and Diane P. Koenker, eds. The Socialist Sixties: Crossing Borders in the Second World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  23. Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880, 4th ed. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2014.Google Scholar
  24. Hemmersam, Peter. “Arctic Architectures.” Polar Record 52, no. 4 (2016): 412–422.Google Scholar
  25. Hermansen Cordua, Christian, ed. Manifestoes and Transformations in the Early Modernist City. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.Google Scholar
  26. Horensma, Pierre. The Soviet Arctic. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.Google Scholar
  27. Interview with A.I. Shipkov, April 21, 2014.Google Scholar
  28. Interview with U.D. Brusnikin, October 14, 2013.Google Scholar
  29. Interview with V.G. Tankayan, November 30, 2013.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, Polly, ed. The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: Negotiating Cultural and Social Change in the Khrushchev Era. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar
  31. Josephson, Paul R. The Conquest of the Russian Arctic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  32. Khrushchev, Nikita. “O Shirokom Vnedrenii Industrial’nyh Metodov, Uluchshenii Kachestva i Snizhenii Stoimosti Stroitel’stva.” Moskovskiy Stroitel’, December 28, 1954.Google Scholar
  33. Koselleck, Reinhart. Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time. Translated by Keith Tribe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Kozlov, Denis, and Eleonory Gilburd, eds. The Thaw, Soviet Society and Culture During the 1950s and 1960s. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  35. Krupitsa, Konstantin, and Boris Murav’ev. “Problemy Stroitelstva na Krainem Severe.” Problemy Severa 10 (1964): 6–20.Google Scholar
  36. Kutsev, Gennady. Chelovek na Severe. Moscow: Politizdat, 1989.Google Scholar
  37. Lajus, Julia. “In Search of Instructive Models. The Russian State at a Crossroads of Conquering the North.” In Northscapes. History, Technology, and the Making of Northern Environments, edited by Dolly Jorgensen and Sverker Sörlin, 110–133. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, Brian. Radical Arctic Proposals. Houston: Rice School of Architecture, 2012.Google Scholar
  39. McCannon, John. Red Arctic: Polar Exploration and the Myth of the North in the Soviet Union, 1932–1939. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  40. McCannon, John. “Tabula Rasa in the North: The Soviet Arctic and Mythic Landscapes in Stalinist Popular Culture.” In Studies in Modernity and National Identity: Landscape of Stalinism: The Art and Ideology of Soviet Space, edited by Evgeny Dobrenko, and Eric Naiman, 241–260. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  41. Meuser, Philipp, and Dmitry Zadorin. Towards a Typology of Soviet Mass Housing. Prefabrication in the USSR, 1955–1991. Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2015.Google Scholar
  42. Michael D. Gordin, Helen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash. “Utopia and Dystopia beyond Space and Time.” In Utopia/Dystopia: Conditions of Historical Possibility, edited by Michael D. Gordin, Helen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash, 1–17. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  43. Mirnenskii rabochii. “Zapoljarnyi Gorod Budushchego.” May 8, 1962.Google Scholar
  44. Murav’ev, Boris, and Tatyana Rimskaya-Korsakova. “Gradostroitelstvo i Akklimatisatsia Naseleniya na Krainem Severe.” Problemy Severa 6 (1962): 83–91.Google Scholar
  45. Murzin, A. “V Severnom Variante.” Pravda, March 8, 1970.Google Scholar
  46. Odnovalov, Sergey, and Maya Tsimbal. “Rascvetaushchie Goroda Zapolaria.” Technika molodezhi, no. 9 (1961): 38–39. Google Scholar
  47. Paperny, Vladimir. Architecture in the Age of Stalin: Culture Two. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  48. Pravila i Normy Planirovki i Zastroiki Gorodov: Proekt. Moscow, 1956.Google Scholar
  49. Reut, V. “Na Severe Dal’nem.” Pravda, January 11, 1959.Google Scholar
  50. RGAE F. 746 Op. 1 D. 135 L. 11.Google Scholar
  51. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Tatyana. “Struktura Selitebnoy Territorii Naselennykh Mest Krainego Severa.” Problemy Severa 10 (1964): 60–71.Google Scholar
  52. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Tatyana. Stroitel’stvo v Gorodakh i Poselkakh na Alyaske. Obzor. Moscow: TsNTI po Grazhdanskomu stroitel’stvu i Architekture, 1975.Google Scholar
  53. Russian State Archive of Economy (RGAE) F. 5 Op.1 D. 19 L. 12.Google Scholar
  54. Ryall, Anka, Johan Schimanski, and Henning Howlid Wærp, eds. Arctic Discourses. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.Google Scholar
  55. Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  56. Semushkin, Tikhon. “Trubka Mir.” Pravda, May 26, 1965.Google Scholar
  57. Siddiqi, Asif. “From Cosmic Enthusiasm to Nostalgia for the Future. A Tale of Soviet Space Culture.” In Soviet Space Culture. Cosmic Enthusiasm in Socialist Societies, edited by Eva Maurer and Julia Richers, 283–306. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.Google Scholar
  58. Slavin, Samuil. Promyshlennoe i Transportnoe Osvoenie Severa SSSR. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Economicheskoy Literatury, 1961.Google Scholar
  59. Slavin, Samuil. “Razvitie Proizvoditel’nykh sil Severa i Problemy Regional’nogo Nauchnogo Progressa.” Problemy Severa 17 (1972): 3–20.Google Scholar
  60. Slavin, Samuil. “Rayonnyy Razrez Plana Vtoroy Pyatiletki i Kontseptsiya Osvoeniya Severa.” In Stranitsy Pamyati. O Planakh, Planirovanii i Planirovshchikakh, edited by N.I. Moskovkin and N.I. Zaprudkin, 181–195. Moscow: Politizdat, 1988.Google Scholar
  61. Slezkine, Yuri. Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  62. Smith, Mark B. Property of Communists: The Urban Housing Program from Stalin to Khrushchev. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2010. Google Scholar
  63. Sörlin, Sverker, and Christer Nordlund. “Modernizing the National Landscape.” The Ketyon Review 25, no. 3/4 (Summer 2003): 301–315.Google Scholar
  64. Stronski, Paul. Tashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930–1966. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  65. Terent’ev, Mefodiy. Milliony Novykh Kvartir. Izdanie 2. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo VTsSPS Profizdat, 1958.Google Scholar
  66. The Central Archive of Scientific and Technical Documents in St. Petersburg (TsGANTD SPb) F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 410.Google Scholar
  67. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 2-2 D. 428.Google Scholar
  68. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 2-2 D. 432. L. 32.Google Scholar
  69. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 444. L. 14.Google Scholar
  70. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 362.Google Scholar
  71. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 378. L. 12.Google Scholar
  72. TsGANTD Spb F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 395.Google Scholar
  73. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 2-6 D. 1188. L. 1.Google Scholar
  74. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 2-2 D. 479.Google Scholar
  75. TsGANTD SPb F. 17 Op. 1-1 D. 396.Google Scholar
  76. TsGANTD SPb F. 29 Op. 2-2 D. 484. L. 16.Google Scholar
  77. Ullas, Nikolay. “Znachenie Prirodno-Klimaticheskikh Faktorov v Gradostroitelstve.” Architektura SSSR, no. 2 (1974): 2–4.Google Scholar
  78. Vasiliev, Mikhail, and Sergey Gushchev. Reportazh iz 21 Veka. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1958.Google Scholar
  79. Voronina, Tatyana. “Pamyat o BAM’e. Tematicheskie Dominanty v Biographicheskikh Interview s Byvshimi Stroiteliami.” Neprikosnovennyi zapas 64, no. 2 (2009): 76–95.Google Scholar
  80. Yastrebov, Aleksey. “Osvoenie Krainego Severa i Problemy Stroitel’stva.” Problemy Severa 10 (1964): 21–30.Google Scholar
  81. Zhukov, K. “Tekhnicheskaya Estetika i Oborudovanie Kvartir.” Tekhnicheskaya Estetika no. 2 (1962): 1–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekaterina Kalemeneva
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research University Higher School of EconomicsSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations