The Development of Binders and Mortars in Sweden

  • J. E. Lindqvist
  • S. Johansson


Masonry with mortar joints and renderings were introduced in Sweden with the integration into the Catholic Church in the 11th and 12th century. The binders used were air lime to sub-hydraulic limes and in some cases hydraulic limes. The impurities give the mortars a greyish and light ochre colours. It was only on the island Gotland were limestone that could be used for production of bright white pure limes occurs. These types of binders were dominant until the 19th century. From the seventeenth century there is a difference in the development of mortars for use in water constructions compared to those used for building on land. Dutch engineers were involved in several important canal projects as well as the establishment of the city of Gothenburg in the 17th century. In the 18th century with the introduction of the mercantile economic theory it became important to handle also these constructions with national resources. Sweden aimed for mortars based of burned oil shale ash as artificial pozzolans. These were introduced in the 1770s and used until the early 20th century. These types of mortars were also to some extent used for masonry houses and military constructions. In the 19th century there was an increase of the built volume, requiring a faster and more industrial building process. This promoted an increased use of pozzolanic and hydraulic binders, not least Portland cement. In the late 19th early 20th centuries a wide variety of binders from pure air lime to highly hydraulic were used for house building.


Mortars Binder Sweden 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swedish Cement and Concrete Research InstituteBoråsSweden
  2. 2.Byggkonsult Sölve Johansson ABTrollhättanSweden

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