Advertisement

Natural Hydraulic Lime Mortars: Influence of the Aggregates

  • P. Faria
  • V. Silva
Chapter

Abstract

Natural hydraulic lime specifications changed with the 2010 version of standard EN 459-1 and new natural hydraulic limes appeared in the market. The characteristics of mortars depend on many different parameters such as the type of binder, the type of aggregates, the use of fillers and of super plasticizers applied in the mortars formulations; also on mixing and curing conditions. In this paper mortars with a Portuguese NHL3.5 were formulated with binder:aggregate volumetric proportions1:3, varying the aggregates type and proportions between them. Two coarse sands, a medium sand, a river sand, a finer sand, a calcareous filler and a ceramic powder were used, being the two last mentioned aggregates by-products from industry. Standardized prismatic mortar samples and samples of mortar applied on a brick surface were prepared and conditioned in two different situations: following standard EN 1015-11 and at 65% relative humidity but with daily water spray during the first days. Mortars were characterized in the fresh state and at the age of 28 days. Results showed the influence namely of the curing, particularly in terms of water capillary, and of the fillers. They also showed that NHL3.5 mortars seem to be adequate for old masonries conservation and repair and, in some situations, they can be an alternative to air lime based mortars.

Keywords

Natural hydraulic lime Aggregate Particle size Mortar Characterization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the support of LNEC on project PRESERVE, to company MONUMENTA for the demand for starting this study about the influence of aggregates and to company Secil for the NHL3.5 and its chemical characterization.

References

  1. CEN. (2001). EN 459-1:2001—Building lime. Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.Google Scholar
  2. CEN. (2010). EN 459-1:2010—Building lime. Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.Google Scholar
  3. CEN. (2015). EN 459-1:2015—Building lime. Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.Google Scholar
  4. CEN. (1999). EN 1015-3:1999/A1:2004/A2:2006)—Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 3: Determination of consistence of fresh mortar (by flow table).Google Scholar
  5. CEN. (1998). EN 1015-6:1998/A1:2006—Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 6: Determination of bulk density of fresh mortar.Google Scholar
  6. CEN. (1999). EN 1015-11:1999/A1:2006—Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 11: Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar.Google Scholar
  7. CEN. (2002). EN 1015-18:2002—Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 18: Determination of water absorption coefficient due to capillary action of hardened mortar.Google Scholar
  8. CEN. (2006). EN 1936:2006—Natural stone test methods. Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total and open porosity.Google Scholar
  9. CEN. (2004). EN 14146:2004—Natural stone test methods. Determination of the dynamic modulus of elasticity (by measuring the fundamental resonance frequency).Google Scholar
  10. CEN. (2009). EN 15801:2009—Conservation of cultural property. Test methods. Determination of water absorption by capillarity.Google Scholar
  11. CEN. (2013a). EN 16302:2013—Conservation of cultural heritage. Test methods. Measurement of water absorption by pipe method.Google Scholar
  12. CEN. (2013b). EN 16322:2013 - Conservation of cultural heritage. Test methods. Determination of drying properties.Google Scholar
  13. Charola, E., et al. (2005). Pozzolanic components in lime mortars: Correlating behaviour, composition and microstructure. Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, 11(2), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faria, P., et al. (2012a). Compatible natural hydraulic lime mortars for historic masonries (in Portuguese). In CIRea2012—International Conference Rehabilitation of Old Masonries (pp. 29–38). NOVA University of Lisbon.Google Scholar
  15. Faria, P., et al. (2012b). Lime-based mortars for ceramic tile application: the influence of the lime, the use of a metakaolin and the curing. In International Conference AZULEJAR. Aveiro University (CD).Google Scholar
  16. Grilo, J., et al. (2014a). New natural hydraulic lime mortars. Physical and microstructural properties in different curing conditions. Construction and Building Materials, 54, 378–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grilo, J., et al. (2014b). Mechanical and mineralogical properties of natural hydraulic lime-metakaolin mortars in different curing conditions. Construction and Building Materials, 51, 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isebaert, A., et al. (2015). Pore-related properties of natural hydraulic lime mortars: an experimental study. Materials & Structures.  https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-015-0684-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matias, G., Faria, P., & Torres, I. (2013). Viability of ceramic residues in lime-based mortars. In 3rd Historic Mortars Conference, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  20. Rato, V. (2006). Influence of morphologic microstructure on mortars behaviour (in Portuguese). PhD thesis, NOVA University of Lisbon.Google Scholar
  21. RILEM. (1980). Commission 25 PEM, Test nº II.4—Water absorption under low pressure; Test nº II.5—Evaporation curve. Materials & Structures 13(75), 200–207.Google Scholar
  22. Veiga, R., et al. (2010). Lime-based mortars: viability for use as substitution renders in historical buildings. Architectural Heritage, 4(2), 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNOVA University of LisbonCaparicaPortugal
  2. 2.CERIS—Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for SustainabilityLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations