Advertisement

International Strategy

  • Adriana Calvelli
  • Chiara Cannavale
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores the different strategic paths that international firms can follow when they enter host markets. Strategy is meant as the result of the external and internal analysis, and through the empirical evidences, we highlight the challenges and new trends connected to the different paths: expansion, diversification, downsizing, and re-focusing. To be competitive, firms need to find the right balance between standardization and adaptation, which is connected also to the kind of coordination international firms develop to guarantee the survival of the system they build cross-countries.

Keywords

International strategy Diversification Expansion Down-sizing Re-focusing 

References

  1. Aaker, D. A., & Joachimsthaler, E. (1999). The lure of global branding. Harvard Business Review, 77, 137–146.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, N. J., & Jelinek, M. (1986). Is “organization culture” culture bound? Human Resource Management, 25(1), 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1989). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Beyond strategic planning to organization learning: Lifeblood of the individualized corporation. Strategy & Leadership, 26(1), 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buckley, P. J., & Casson, M. C. (1976). The future of the multinational enterprise. London: Homes & Meier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cainarca, G. C., & Mariotti, S. (1985). I sentieri della diversificazione orientata. Un’analisi empirica delle grandi imprese statunitensi. Economia e Politica Industriale, 46, 47.Google Scholar
  7. Calvelli, A. (1995). Diversificazione e Ricentraggio. In L. Caselli (Ed.), Le parole d’Impresa. Milano: FrancoAngeli.Google Scholar
  8. Copeland, T., Koller, T., & Murrin, J. (1991). Valuation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Daniels, J. D., & Radebaugh, L. H. (1989). International business. Environment and operations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  10. Grandinetti, R., & Rullani, E. (1996). Impresa transnazionale ed economia globale. Roma: La Nuova Italia Scientifica.Google Scholar
  11. Grant, R. M. (1987). Multinationality and performance among British manufacturing companies. Journal of International Business Studies, 18(3), 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hymer, S. (1960 [1976]). The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. Itami, H. (1987). Mobilizing invisible assets. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Laurent, A. (1983). The cultural diversity of western conceptions of management. International Studies of Management and Organizations, INSEAD, 13(1–2), 75–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lorenzoni, G. (1990). L’architettura di sviluppo delle imprese minori. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  16. MacMillan, I. C. (1983). Preemptive strategies. Journal of Business Strategy, 4(2), 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, K. D. (1992). A framework for integrated risk management in international business. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(2), 311–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miller, K. D. (1993). Industry and country effects on managers’ perceptions of environmental uncertainties. Journal of International Business Studies, 24(4), 693–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moss Kanter, R., & Dretler, T. D. (1998). “Global strategy” and its impact on local operations: Lessons from Gillette Singapore. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(4), 60–68.Google Scholar
  20. Orton, J. D., & Weick, K. E. (1990). Loosely coupled systems: A reconceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 15(2), 203–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Porter, M. E. (1996). Competitive advantage, agglomeration economies, and regional policy. International Regional Science Review, 19(1–2), 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ronen, S. (1986). Comparative and multinational management (Vol. 198). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Rugman, A., & Hodgetts, R. (2001). The end of global strategy. European Management Journal, 19(4), 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rumelt, R. P. (1974). Strategy, structure, and economic performance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Teece, D. J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration licensing and public policy. Research Policy, 15, 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vaccà, S. (1990). Scienza e tecnologia nell’economia dell’impresa. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  27. Vachani, S. (1990). Strategic responses of multinationals to competition from developing-country cottage firms. International Marketing Review, 7(3), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vicari, S. (1989). Nuove dimensioni della concorrenza. Strategie nei mercati senza confini. Milano: Egea.Google Scholar
  29. Wernerfelt, B., & Karnani, A. (1987). Competitive strategy under uncertainty. Strategic Management Journal, 8(2), 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Calvelli
    • 1
  • Chiara Cannavale
    • 1
  1. 1.Parthenope University of NaplesNapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations