Advertisement

Adaptating CBT-OB for Binge-Eating Disorder

  • Riccardo Dalle Grave
  • Massimiliano Sartirana
  • Marwan El Ghoch
  • Simona Calugi
Chapter

Abstract

Patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) respond quite well to psychological interventions, including non-intensive guided self-help based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the main problem to date is that these treatments, like behavioural therapy for obesity and medications, do not produce significant weight loss. Indeed, BED is maintained by multiple and heterogeneous mechanisms that are difficult to fully address via the available treatments. With this in mind, CBT for obesity (CBT-OB) has been adapted for patients with concomitant BED, integrating strategies and procedures from CBT-E (“Enhanced”)—a treatment recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for all eating disorders and ages. All patients with BED and obesity start the treatment at Stage 1 of CBT-E. Then, after 4 weeks, in Stage 2 of CBT-E, the decision is taken whether to continue with CBT-E or to shift to standard CBT-OB. This decision will be made taking into account the patient’s response to treatment, any presentation of overvaluation of shape and weight and general attitude. Specifically, CBT-OB can be started if patients display a remission from binge eating and do not report overvaluation of shape and weight. Otherwise, the treatment continues with CBT-E Stages 3 and 4. CBT-OB can then be started if patients have achieved remission from binge eating and do not report the overvaluation of shape and weight at the post-treatment review session, 20 weeks after the end of CBT-E.

References

  1. 1.
    Stunkard AJ. Eating patterns and obesity. Psychiatry Q. 1959;33:284–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wonderlich SA, Gordon KH, Mitchell JE, Crosby RD, Engel SG. The validity and clinical utility of binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(8):687–705.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Engel SG, Kahler KA, Lystad CM, Crosby RD, Simonich HK, Wonderlich SA, et al. Eating behavior in obese BED, obese non-BED, and non-obese control participants: a naturalistic study. Behav Res Ther. 2009;47(10):897–900.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Devlin MJ. Binge eating disorder. In: Brownell KD, Walsh BT, editors. Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook. New York: Guilford Press; 2017. p. 192–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grilo CM. Why no cognitive body image feature such as overvaluation of shape/weight in the binge eating disorder diagnosis? Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46(3):208–11.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22082.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Utzinger LM, Mitchell JE, Cao L, Crosby RD, Crow SJ, Wonderlich SA, et al. Clinical utility of subtyping binge eating disorder by history of anorexia or bulimia nervosa in a treatment sample. Int J Eat Disord. 2015;48(6):785–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22422.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agh T, Kovacs G, Supina D, Pawaskar M, Herman BK, Voko Z, et al. A systematic review of the health-related quality of life and economic burdens of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Eat Weight Disord. 2016;21(3):353–64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-016-0264-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):348–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ricca V, Mannucci E, Moretti S, Di Bernardo M, Zucchi T, Cabras PL, et al. Screening for binge eating disorder in obese outpatients. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(2):111–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell JE, King WC, Courcoulas A, Dakin G, Elder K, Engel S, et al. Eating behavior and eating disorders in adults before bariatric surgery. Int J Eat Disord. 2015;48(2):215–22.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Field AE, Sonneville KR, Micali N, Crosby RD, Swanson SA, Laird NM, et al. Prospective association of common eating disorders and adverse outcomes. Pediatrics. 2012;130(2):e289–95.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3663.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Doll HA, Norman P, O’Connor M. The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(7):659–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Treasure J, Claudino AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet. 2010;375(9714):583–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)61748-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mitchell JE, King WC, Pories W, Wolfe B, Flum DR, Spaniolas K, et al. Binge eating disorder and medical comorbidities in bariatric surgery candidates. Int J Eat Disord. 2015;48(5):471–6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22389.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bulik CM, Reichborn-Kjennerud T. Medical morbidity in binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;34(Suppl):S39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.10204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fairburn CG. Cognitive behavior therapy and eating disorders. New York: Guilford Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grilo CM. Psychological and behavioral treatments for binge-eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(Suppl 1):20–4.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.sh16003su1c.04.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). Eating disorders: recognition and treatment (NG69). 2017.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilson GT, Wilfley DE, Agras WS, Bryson SW. Psychological treatments of binge eating disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(1):94–101.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.170.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McElroy SL. Pharmacologic treatments for binge-eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(Suppl 1):14–9.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.sh16003su1c.03.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dalle Grave R, Cooper Z. Enhanced cognitive behavior treatment adapted for younger patients. In: Wade T, editor. Encyclopedia of feeding and eating disorders. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dalle Grave R. Intensive cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders. Hauppauge, NY: Nova; 2012.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Calugi S, Ricca V, Castellini G, Lo Sauro C, Ruocco A, Chignola E, et al. The eating disorder examination: reliability and validity of the Italian version. Eat Weight Disord. 2015;20(4):505–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-015-0191-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, O’Connor M. Eating disorder examination (EDE 16.0D). In: Fairburn CG, editor. Cognitive behavior therapy and eating disorders. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. p. 265–308.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Dalle Grave
    • 1
  • Massimiliano Sartirana
    • 1
  • Marwan El Ghoch
    • 1
  • Simona Calugi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Eating and Weight DisordersVilla Garda HospitalGardaItaly

Personalised recommendations