This chapter explores three different, yet interrelated, topics essential for the practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery. It addresses the current evidence-based treatment recommendations for osteomyelitis, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), and osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Additionally, this chapter addresses the etiology, diagnosis, and staging of MRONJ/BRONJ and ORN, as well as the subcategories of osteomyelitis of the jaws, including acute suppurative osteomyelitis, chronic suppurative osteomyelitis, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, and juvenile mandibular chronic osteomyelitis (JMCO).
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