Shifting to the Left (1961–1962)
This chapter describes a period of radicalization (1961–1962). Nkrumah’s measures included the establishment of the African Affairs Secretariat, the strengthening of propaganda and the development of training facilities (including military) for freedom fighters, intending to influence them ideologically. In 1961 the Ideological Institute was opened to both Ghanaians and freedom fighters. The outcome of Barden’s work in 1961–1962 was double-edged. On the one side, the BAA succeeded in creating important connections with African liberation movements, as proven by the testimonies of the eye-witnesses interviewed. On the other side, African liberation movements also began to suffer Barden’s interference with the internal affairs of the parties. As a result, by mid-1962, the first cracks in Ghana’s leadership of the liberation struggle began to show.