Cerebral infarction (CI) caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion exhibits a very high mortality rate. To reduce this rate, a decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) is performed clinically based on several randomized trials. In ischemic stroke, a state of malnutrition leads to poor outcomes. However, little evidence is available on nutrition state in the acute phase after DHC. This preliminary study focuses on serum markers, especially dynamic or static nutrition-associated markers including prealbumin, transferrin, retinol binding protein (RBP) and serum albumin under tube feeding with Peptamen®AF (Nestlé Health Science Japan). Blood samples were collected from four patients and analyzed at 6 time points over 14 days (preoperative day, post-operative day (POD) 1, POD 3, POD 7, POD 10, and POD 14). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Least Significant Difference (LSD), was employed to analyze the blood levels at each time point. The prealbumin and RBP levels showed no significant difference between preoperation and POD 3, although they decreased gradually, while transferrin decreased significantly between the preoperative day and POD 3 (P < 0.05). The level increased significantly on POD 14 as compared to POD 3 (P < 0.05) for each dynamic marker, respectively. The albumin value decreased significantly on POD 3 to POD 7 as compared to the preoperational day (P < 0.05), while the total protein fell significantly on POD 3 (P < 0.05). The total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, transferrin, and C-reactive protein were also investigated. Some markers fluctuated significantly, especially on POD 3. The duration may represent a hypercatabolic phase for malignant cerebral infarction with DHC. Based on these findings, further investigations among these markers, the tube fed contents, physiological changes and disability could lead to better outcomes following malignant CI.
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Special thanks are due to all staff members of Sonoda Daiichi Hospital. In particular, we express our appreciation to Mrs. Noriko Oshiyama (chief nurse of neurosurgery), Mrs. Kumi Kimura (registered dietitian), Miss Ami Fujimoto (registered dietitian), and Mr. Norio Sugama (chief pharmacist) for preparing the tube feeding protocol used in the patients. We have no conflicts of interest to declare. This research has not received any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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