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Molecular Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Signaling

  • Menizibeya Osain Welcome
Chapter

Abstract

The epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate with each other and with cells of other organs via a complex network of highly regulated movement of ions and biomolecules. The molecules ensure regulated activity of cells, tissues, and organs of the GI system and the body as whole. The regulated movement and subsequent activities of the biomolecules released from one cell to the target are made possible by receptive substances (receptors) localized on the membrane of the target cells or intracellular organelles, or in the cytosol. This process, which is referred to as cell-to-cell communication or cellular signaling, ensures the regulated functioning of the cells and tissues of the GI system and the whole organism. This chapter is dedicated to the mechanism of cell-to-cell communication and signaling in normal and relates it to how disease develops. Basic mechanisms of GI epithelial cell signaling and gut nutrient receptor sensing (GI chemosensation) are discussed.

Keywords

Cellular communication Cell-to-cell communication Cell signaling Steroid receptors G protein-coupled receptor Ion channels Ion channel receptor Channelopathies Tyrphostins Catalytic receptors Enzyme-linked receptor Guanylate cyclase Receptor serine/threonine kinase Tyrosine receptor kinase Morphogens Morphogen receptor Notch Hedgehog Wingless/wnt Cytokines Interleukins Cytokine receptor JAK/STAT Integrin receptors Cell-surface adhesion receptors Gastrointestinal chemosensation Gut nutrient sensing Receptor nutrient sensing Amino acid sensors Fatty acid/lipid sensors Glucose sensors 

Abbreviations

5-HT

5-hydroxytryptamine type

7TM

Seven transmembrane

ADAM

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase protein

Akt

“Ak” (mouse bred) that developed thymoma (“t”)

AMPA

Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

ATF3

Activating transcription factor 3

BMP

Bone morphogenic protein

BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide

CaM

Calmodulin

CaMK

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CaSR

Calcium-sensing receptor of aromatic amino acid

CBPs

Ca2+-binding proteins

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinase

CFTR

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

cGMP

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CLK

CDK-like kinase

CNP

C-type natriuretic peptide

CO

Carbon monoxide

CRAC

Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+

CREB

CAMP response element-binding protein

CSL

(CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1) C promoter Binding Factor-1, Suppressor of Hairless, Longevity-Assurance Gene

DAG

Diacylglycerol

Dhh

Desert Hedgehog

Dll-1-4

Delta/Delta-like

Dvl or Dsh

Disheveled

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EPAC

Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and exchange proteins activated by cAMP

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ErbB

Erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene

ERK

Extracellular receptor kinase

FABP

Fatty acid-binding proteins

FAK

Focal adhesion kinase

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FFAR

Fatty Acid Transport Protein

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FRAP1

FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1

Fzd

Frizzled

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

GAPs

GTPase-activating proteins

GBP

GSK-3-binding proteins

GC

Guanylate cyclase

GDI

Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor

GDNF

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor

GDP

Guanosine 5′-diphosphate

GEFs

Guanine nucleotide exchange factors

GIP

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

GLP-1

Glucagon-like peptide-1

GPBAR-1

G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1

GPCR

G protein (guanine nucleotide-binding protein) coupled receptor

GRKs

GPCR kinases

GSK3

Glycolgen synthase kinase 3

GSK-3β

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β

GTP

Guanosine 5-triphosphate

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

Hh

Hedgehog

HMG

High mobility group

HS

Heparan sulfate

HSPGs

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans

ICAM

Intercellular adhesion molecules

ICD

Intracellular domain of the notch receptor

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IGF1R

Insulin-like growth factor

IGF-2

Insulin-like growth factor-2

Ihh

Indian Hedgehog

IL

Interleukins

ILK

Integrin-linked kinase

IP3

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IP3R

IP3 receptor

IRAG

Nitric oxide

IRS1

Insulin receptor substrate 1

Jag-1, Jag-2

Jagged

JAK

Janus kinase

LCFA

Long-chain fatty acid

LEF

Lymphoid enhancer factor

MAML

Mastermind-like

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

M-BAR

Membrane-type receptor for bile acids

MCT

Medium chain triglyceride

mTOR

Mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin

NAADP

Cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

nAChRs

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

N-CAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T cell

NGF

Neuronal growth factor

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate

NO

IP3R-associated cGMP kinase substrate

NO

Nitric oxide

NT-3

Neurotrophin-3

P2X receptors

ATP-gated channels

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PI-3-K

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PKG

Protein kinase G

PLC

Phospholipase C

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

PTB

Phosphotyrosine binding

Ras

Rat sarcoma

RBPJ

Jκ immunoglobulin gene

RSTK

Receptor serine/threonine kinase

RTK

Receptor tyrosine kinase

SARAF

Store-operated calcium entry-associated regulatory factor

SCF (also called c-kit)

Stem cell factor

SCFA

Short chain fatty acid

SGLT1

Sodium glucose cotransporter type 1

SH2

Src homology 2

Shh

Sonic hedgehog

Shh

Sonic Hedgehog

SIM

Stromal interacting molecule (previous name for STIMI1)

SOCE

Store-operated calcium channel

STa

Bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

STIM1

Stromal interaction molecule 1

TCF

T cell factor

TGF-beta

Transforming growth factor beta

TKI

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

TMEM66

Transmembrane protein 66

TNFs

Tumor necrosis factors

TRP

Transient Receptor Potential

TRPV1

Transient Receptor Potential Valinoid type 1

TSC1-TSC2

Tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 1 and 2

VCAM

Vascular cell adhesion molecule

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Wif-1 & 2

Wnt inhibitory factor 1 and 2

Wnt

Wingless-related integration site

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical SciencesCollege of Health Sciences, Nile University of NigeriaFCT-AbujaNigeria

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