Limitations and Strengths

  • Tia Hoffer
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Yvonne Muirhead
  • J Reid Meloy
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


The limitations for the study include the limitation of the access to cases being based on the public sourced website. The snowball sampling was included by asking law enforcement agencies for additional animal cruelty cases. The sample of the cases was not obtained from every state. The study only followed up on the offenders for a few years, so additional criminal violations may occur if National Crime Information Center (NCIC) criminal histories are run in the future. This is the first study that examined animal cruelty through the lens of affective and predatory behavior and focused only on active animal cruelty offenders.


Pet abuse Animal cruelty Interrater discrepancies Coders Randomly recoded Meloy’s model of predatory and affective violence Interview strategies Child abuse Domestic violence or elder abuse Interpersonal violence Evaluations Antisocial personality disorder 


  1. Meloy, J. (2006). Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(6), 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tia Hoffer
    • 1
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
    • 2
  • Yvonne Muirhead
    • 3
  • J Reid Meloy
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal Bureau of InvestigationKapoleiUSA
  2. 2.Marymount UniversityArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Federal Bureau of InvestigationSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.University of CaliforniaLa JollaUSA

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