Comparison of Affective and Predatory Offenders

  • Tia Hoffer
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Yvonne Muirhead
  • J Reid Meloy
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


This chapter provides a summary of the differences found in the sample between the two violence types, including the degree of IPV, criminal history, substance/drug offenses, assault, fraud, and trespassing. The relationship between the offender and the animal victim was more frequently found with the affective offenders. The type of animal cruelty acts differed between the affective and predatory types. Finally, the motivations for the animal cruelty act was different between the affective and predatory types, with predatory offenders more likely motivated due to the offender’s needs/wants, animal being unwanted, and to experience nonspecific sadism. Affective offenders were more motivated by a third party and due to the action by the animal.


Affective and predatory offenders Impulsive Fraud and trespassing violations Relationship Animal cruelty Personal weapons Instruments Beating Throwing Strangling/choking and/or kicking Asphyxiation Blunt force trauma Gunshot Euthanasia 


  1. Levi, M. D., Nussbaum, D. S., & Rich, J. B. (2010). Neuropsychological and personality characteristics of predatory, irritable, and nonviolent offenders: Support for a typology of criminal human aggression. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(6), 633–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Meloy, J. R. (2000). Violence risk and threat assessment. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tia Hoffer
    • 1
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
    • 2
  • Yvonne Muirhead
    • 3
  • J Reid Meloy
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal Bureau of InvestigationKapoleiUSA
  2. 2.Marymount UniversityArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Federal Bureau of InvestigationSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.University of CaliforniaLa JollaUSA

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