• Tia Hoffer
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Yvonne Muirhead
  • J Reid Meloy
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


The 139-questions animal cruelty protocol was developed by the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) for this project. Active animal cruelty was defined as the physical abuse toward animals such as torture, beating, burning, drowning, suffocating, shooting and other forms of physical violence. The forms of abuse were further broken down into intimate and distant acts of violence. The protocol was peer reviewed and is divided into three areas: offender background, offense information and victimolsogy. In addition, the BAU’s predatory/affective violence scale was used to indicate if the animal cruelty act was reactive, reactive-instrumental, instrumental/reactive or instrumental based on Woodworth and Porter (J Abnorm Psychol 111:436–445, 2002).


Animal cruelty protocol Definition of animal cruelty Active animal cruelty Intimate acts of violence Distant acts of violence Affective/predatory violence scale Victimology Reactive aggression Instrumental aggression Instrumental/reactive violence scale Primarily affective violence Affective/predatory violence Predatory/affective violence Primarily predatory violence 


  1. Ascione, F. R., Weber, D. S., & Wood, C. V. (1997). The abuse of animals and domestic violence: A national survey of shelters for women who are battered. Society and Animals Journal of Human and Animal Studies, 5(3), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: Characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(3), 436–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tia Hoffer
    • 1
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
    • 2
  • Yvonne Muirhead
    • 3
  • J Reid Meloy
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal Bureau of InvestigationKapoleiUSA
  2. 2.Marymount UniversityArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Federal Bureau of InvestigationSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.University of CaliforniaLa JollaUSA

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