Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Head and Face Pain

  • Shannon W. Clark
  • Ashwini Sharan
  • Chengyuan Wu


Neuromodulation has emerged as a potentially promising therapeutic modality for many headache and facial pain disorders. Electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve (PNS) is a mode of neuromodulation that can be used to treat not only neuropathic pain that manifests in dermatomal patterns but also primary headache disorders that affect a region of maximal pain not correlating with one specific dermatome. Common PNS strategies for head and face pain include implantation of subcutaneous electrodes to various named nerves such as occipital nerve stimulation (ONS), supraorbital nerve stimulation (SONS), sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) stimulation, and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS).


Peripheral nerve stimulation Occipital nerve stimulation Supraorbital nerve stimulation Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shannon W. Clark
    • 1
  • Ashwini Sharan
    • 1
  • Chengyuan Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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