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Degenerative Diseases (Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Petros Georgopoulos
  • Konstantinos-Vaios Mytilekas
  • Apostolos Apostolidis
Chapter

Abstract

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and incontinence are highly prevalent among multiple sclerosis (MS ) patients and are strongly related to the duration, progress and severity of the neurological condition. Mixed LUTS are common, with a higher prevalence of detrusor overactivity (DO) in urodynamic investigations. Interestingly, upper urinary tract damage is infrequent in MS patients. Despite the negative effect on QoL, the majority of MS patients do not consult a urologist. Available treatments are similar as in non-neurogenic LUTS, albeit with a lower level of evidence apart from intradetrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin A. Lifestyle interventions with or without antimuscarinics and clean intermittent catheterizations are the mainstay of management, but with significant rates of discontinuation. Invasive surgery (enterocystoplasty, urinary diversion procedures) is spared for refractory cases and those patients with upper extremity dexterity issues.

Similarly, LUTS are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, with nocturia being the most prevalent symptom and DO the most common urodynamic observation, followed by detrusor underactivity and bladder outlet obstruction. Antimuscarinics are the mainstay of medical treatment for storage LUTS in PD patients, while sparse data exist on the use of alpha-blockers. Surgical treatment of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is no longer a contraindication in PD patients so long as multiple system atrophy is excluded. Minimally invasive treatments, such as botulinum-A toxin bladder injections, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation, are considered in cases of refractory symptoms. Manipulation of the gut and urinary microbiota might play a role in the therapeutic management of both PD and associated LUTS in the future.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Lower urinary tract Incontinence Treatment Quality of life Antimuscarinics/anticholinergics Botulinum neurotoxin Neuromodulation Catheterization Cannabinoids Parkinson’s disease Bladder Prostate Alpha-blockers Deep brain stimulation Microbiota 

Abbreviations

ASST

Actionable Bladder Symptom and Screening Tool

BOO

Bladder outlet obstruction

BPO

Benign prostatic obstruction

CIC

Clean Intermittent Catheterization

DO

Detrusor overactivity

DRE

Digital rectal examination

DSD

Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia

DUA

Detrusor underactivity

EAU

European Association of Urology

EDSS

Expanded Disability Status Scale

IPSS

International Prostate Symptom Score

ISC

Intermittent self-catheterization

LUTS

Lower urinary tract symptoms

MS

Multiple sclerosis

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

NLUTS

Neurogenic lower urinary tract symptoms

NMS

Non-motor symptoms

OAB

Overactive bladder

OR

Odds ratio

PD

Parkinson’s disease

POP

Pelvic organ prolapse

PPMS

Primary progressive multiple sclerosis

PR

Progressive relapsing

PROMs

Patient-reported outcome measures

PTNS

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation

PVR

Post-void residual

QoL

Quality of life

RRMS

Relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

SCI

Spinal cord injury

SNM

Sacral neuromodulation

SPMS

Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

TUR-P

Transurethral resection of the prostate

UDS

Urodynamic study

UI

Urinary incontinence

UK

United Kingdom

UTIs

Urinary tract infections

UUI

Urge urinary incontinence

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petros Georgopoulos
    • 1
  • Konstantinos-Vaios Mytilekas
    • 1
  • Apostolos Apostolidis
    • 1
  1. 1.2nd Department of UrologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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