Congenital Abnormalities (Meningomyelocele and Spinal Dysraphism)

  • Ryuji SakakibaraEmail author


Cystic and occult spina bifida (SB) presents with a wide spectrum of urodynamic abnormalities including upper and lower neuron types of bladder and urethral dysfunction. Careful uro-neurological assessment and spinal MRI are important for diagnosing young adult patients with occult SB, because they may present with urinary symptoms as the sole initial symptom and have no other obvious neurological abnormalities. Despite consensus regarding the need for early urological management, controversy remains regarding the types of intervention. CIC, anticholinergics, botulinum A toxin, and reconstructive surgery have good outcomes for the primary goals, e.g., protection of renal function, improved urinary continence, and independence. Future studies are warranted to maximize bladder quality of life in the patients with SB.


Spina bifida Cystic spina bifida Occult spina bifida Urinary continence Child Urodynamics Urinary dysfunction Clean intermittent catheterization Anticholinergics Botulinum A toxin 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyInternal Medicine, Sakura Medical Center, Toho UniversitySakuraJapan

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