Neuro-Urology pp 155-161 | Cite as

Neuro-urological History and Clinical Examination

  • Hazel Ecclestone
  • Rizwan Hamid


As with most medical conditions, a thorough history and examination is key to fully understanding neuro-urological pathology. History taking should be holistic, covering urological, neurological and general complaints. In addition quality of life should be assessed, along with social situation and patient aims and expectations. Red flag symptoms should always be assessed.

Examination should aim to assess urological, neurological and general features. Relevant sensation, reflexes and motor response should be tested, including sacral reflexes. A detailed examination can help predict expected bladder dysfunction.


Neuro-urological condition History Physical examination Quality of life Red flags Bladder Bowel Sexual dysfunction Guidelines 



Body mass index


Central nervous system


European Association of Urology


Multiple sclerosis


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence


Quality of life


Spinal cord injury


  1. 1.
    NICE guideline panel 2012. Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, available from Accessed 1 Nov 2017.
  2. 2.
    Blok B, Pannek P, Castro-Diaz D, et al. European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on neuro-urology. Presented at the EAU Annual Congress London; 2017. 978-90-79754-91-5. Arnhem, The Netherlands: EAU Guidelines Office.Google Scholar
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    Messelink B, Benson T, Berghmans B, et al. Standardization of terminology of pelvic floor muscle function and dysfunction: report from the pelvic floor clinical assessment group of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2005;24(4):374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hazel Ecclestone
    • 1
  • Rizwan Hamid
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.University College London HospitalsLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of NeurourologySpinal Injuries UnitStanmore/LondonUK
  3. 3.University College London HospitalsLondonUK

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