Neuro-urological History and Clinical Examination
As with most medical conditions, a thorough history and examination is key to fully understanding neuro-urological pathology. History taking should be holistic, covering urological, neurological and general complaints. In addition quality of life should be assessed, along with social situation and patient aims and expectations. Red flag symptoms should always be assessed.
Examination should aim to assess urological, neurological and general features. Relevant sensation, reflexes and motor response should be tested, including sacral reflexes. A detailed examination can help predict expected bladder dysfunction.
KeywordsNeuro-urological condition History Physical examination Quality of life Red flags Bladder Bowel Sexual dysfunction Guidelines
Body mass index
Central nervous system
European Association of Urology
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
Quality of life
Spinal cord injury
- 1.NICE guideline panel 2012. Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, available from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg148/resources/urinary-incontinence-in-neurological-disease-assessment-and-management-pdf-35109577553605. Accessed 1 Nov 2017.
- 2.Blok B, Pannek P, Castro-Diaz D, et al. European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on neuro-urology. Presented at the EAU Annual Congress London; 2017. 978-90-79754-91-5. Arnhem, The Netherlands: EAU Guidelines Office.Google Scholar