Trajectories of Situated Transnational Parenting – Caregiving Arrangements of East European Labour Migrants in Sweden
The aim of this chapter is to explore how caregiving arrangements among parents of the recent East European labour migrants in Sweden develop in a transnational setting. Using the theoretical model of situated transnational caregiving arrangements and the analytical principles and concepts of the life course perspective, we analyse caregiving arrangements during three stages of the transnational parenting trajectory: decisions to migrate, caring at a distance and decisions to reunite. The research draws on qualitative interviews with migrant parents engaged in caring arrangements situated between Poland and Romania’s weak neoliberalist welfare states and conditional inclusion into Sweden’s universalist welfare state. The results show that decisions to migrate can be seen as turning points leading to a long-lasting transition in care relationships. Caring at a distance involves ongoing negotiations within intergenerational networks. The agencies of both parents and children are crucial, where children’s age and the quality of relationships are central.
- Andrén, D., & Roman, M. (2014, December). Should i stay or should i go: Romanian migrants during transitions and enlargements. IZA Working paper 8690. http://ftp.iza.org/dp8690.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2017.
- Anghel, R. G. (2013). Romanians in Western Europe. Migration, status dilemmas and transnational connections. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Astilean, A. R. (2016). The issue of emancipation in the case of Romanian migrant women. In V. Ducu & Á. Telegdi-Csetri (Eds.), Managing difference in eastern-European transnational families (pp. 63–76). Frankfurt: Peter Lang GmbH.Google Scholar
- Baldassar, L., & Merla, L. (2013). Locating transnational care circulation in migration and family studies. In L. Baldassar & L. Merla (Eds.), Transnational families, migration and the circulation of care: Understanding mobility and absence in family life (pp. 23–56). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Basten, S., & Frejka, T. (2015, February). Fertility and family policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Barnett Working papers. https://www.spi.ox.ac.uk. Accessed 12 October 2016.
- Bell, J., & Bivand Erdal, M. (2015). Limited but enduring transnational ties? Transnational family life among polish migrants in Norway. Studia Migracyine, 3(157), 77–98.Google Scholar
- Black, R., et al. (Eds.). (2010). A continent moving west? EU enlargement and labor migration from central and Eastern Europe. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Bonizzoni, P., & Boccagni, P. (2013). Care and circulation revisited: A conceptual map of diversity in transnational parenting. In L. Baldassar & L. Merla (Eds.), Transnational families, migration and the circulation of care: Understanding mobility and absence in family life (pp. 76–91). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Brannen, J., & Nilsen, A. (2013). Methodological approaches, practices and reflections. In A. Nilsen, J. Brannen, & S. Lewis (Eds.), Transition to parenthood in Europe – A comparative life course perspective (pp. 27–40). Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Bryceson, D., & Vuorela, U. (2002). The transnational family – New European Frontiers and global networks. Oxford: Berg Publishers.Google Scholar
- Delmi. (2016). Migration to Sweden in figures. http://www.delmi.se/migration-i-siffror#!/karta-over-utrikes-fodda-personer-efter-fodelseland-2000-2014-1. Accessed 23 April 2017.
- Ducu, V. (2014). Transnational mothers from Romania. Romanian Journal of Population Studies, 1, 117–141.Google Scholar
- Ducu, V., & Telegdi-Csetri, Á. (Eds.). (2016). Managing difference in eastern-European transnational families. Frankfurt: Peter Lang GmbH.Google Scholar
- Fihel, A., Kaczmarczyk, P., & Stefańsk, R. (2012). Recent trends in international migration in Poland. Central and Eastern European Migration Review, 1(1), 69–90.Google Scholar
- Friberg, J. H. & Eldring, L. (Eds.). (2013). Labor migrants from central and Eastern Europe in the Nordic countries: Patterns of migration, working conditions and recruitment practices. Tema Nord 2013: 570. www.norden.org/en/publications. Accessed 8 January 2014.
- Hassel, A., & Wagner, B. (2016). The EU’s ‘migration crisis’: Challenge, threat or opportunity? In B. Vanhercke et al. (Eds.), Social policy in the European Union: State of play 2016 (pp. 61–92). Brussels: ETUI & OSE.Google Scholar
- James, A. (2009). Agency. In J. Qvontrup et al. (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of childhood studies (pp. 34–45). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.Google Scholar
- King, R., Thomson, M., Fielding, T., & Tony Warnes, T. (2006). Time, generations and gender in migration and settlement. In M. B. Penninx & K. Kraal (Eds.), The dynamics of international migration and settlement in Europe: A state of the art (pp. 233–267). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Parrenas, R. S. (2005). Children of global migration: Transnational families gendered woes. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rentea, G. C., & Rotarescu, L. E. (2016). Yesterday’s children, today’s youth: The experiences of children left behind by Romanian migrant parents. In V. Ducu & Á. Telegdi-Csetri (Eds.), Managing difference in eastern-European transnational families (pp. 151–170). Frankfurt: Peter Lang GmbH.Google Scholar
- Runfors, A., Fröhlig, F., & Saar, M. (2016). Comparative analysis of the portability of social security rights within the European Union: Estonia-Sweden case study. WSF Policy Brief. Online publication. 16 October. https://transweldotorg.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/policy-brief-portability-estonia-sweden2.pdf
- Slany, K., & Pustulka, P. (2016). Children, parents and institutions in the mobility maze. Central and East European Migration Review, 5(1), 5–12.Google Scholar
- Smart, C. (2007). Personal Life. Cambridge: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Statistics Sweden (SCB). (2015). Barn och unga födda i Polen och Rumänien [Children born in Poland and Romania], Unpublished data from the national register on children and families in Sweden.Google Scholar
- Wall, K., & Bolzman, C. (2013). Mapping the new plurality of transnational families: A life course perspective. In L. Baldassar & L. Merla (Eds.), Transnational families, migration and the circulation of care: Understanding mobility and absence in family life (pp. 61–77). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- White, A. (2010). Polish families and migration since EU accession. Policy Press, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
- Widding Isaksen, L. (Ed.). (2010). Global care work. Gender and migration and Nordic societies. Lund: Nordic Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Wingens, M., de Valk, H., Windzio, M., & Aybek, C. (2011). The sociological life course approach and research on migration and integration. In M. Wingens, H. de Valk, M. Windzio, & C. Aybek (Eds.), A life course perspective on migration and integration (pp. 1–26). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xhaho, A., & Caro, E. (2016). Gendered work-family balance in migration: Albanian migrants in Greece. In V. Ducu & Á. Telegdi-Csetri (Eds.), Managing difference in eastern-European transnational families (pp. 77–96). Frankfurt: Peter Lang GmbH.Google Scholar