Advertisement

The Transformation of Regime and Gender Inequality in Turkey

  • Adem Yavuz Elveren
Chapter

Abstract

The common perception in the West was that, with the AKP, Turkey had finally overcome the enduring Islamist versus secularist societal split, and it was believed that ‘New Turkey’ of the Muslim democratic AKP could be a role model for the Arab World. However, history has proved correct the alternative narrative by Turkey’s secular elite that the AKP or Erdoğan ’s hidden agenda is to replace Kemalist ideology with an authoritarian Islamic one. This chapter provides a brief account of this radical transformation, focusing on the welfare regime and education system.

Keywords

Justice and Development Party Welfare state Authoritarianism Islamiccharity Gender Religious education 

References

  1. Acar, F. (1983). Turkish Women in Academia: Roles and Careers. METU Studies in Development, 10, 409–446.Google Scholar
  2. Acar, F., & Altunok, G. (2013). The ‘politics of intimate’ at the intersection of neo-liberalism and neo-conservatism in contemporary Turkey. Women’s Studies International Forum, 41, 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acar, M., Köse, N., Yıldırım Ocal, J., Boyacı, A., & Sezgin, F. (2012). Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Turkey Project Report. Ankara: Ministry of Family and Social Policies.Google Scholar
  4. Akça, İ., Bekmen, A., & Özden, B. A. (Eds.) (2014). Turkey Reframed Constituting Neoliberal Hegemony. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aslan-Akman C., & Tütüncü, F. (2013). The Struggle against Male Violence with an Egalitarian Jurisprudence and Religious Conservative Government: The Case of Secular Turkey. In Z. S. Salhi (Ed.), Gender and Violence in Islamic Societies (pp. 82–107). London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  6. Atalay, Z. (2017). Partners in Patriarchy: Faith-Based Organizations and Neoliberalism in Turkey. Critical Sociology.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920517711488
  7. Aydin, E., Hisarciklilar, M., & Ilkkaracan, I. (2010). Formal versus informal labor Market Segmentation in Turkey in the Course of Market Liberalization. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 12, 1–43.Google Scholar
  8. Aydıner-Avşar, N. (2011). Essays on Trade and Wage Structure in Turkey. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Aydıner-Avşar, N. (2015). Conditional Cash Transfer Programs from a Gender Perspective: A Comparative Evaluation for Turkey. European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, 7, 37–66.Google Scholar
  10. Bedford, K. (2008). Holding it together in a crisis: Family strengthening and embedding neoliberalism. IDS Bulletin, 39(6), 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergmann, C., & Tafolar, M. (2014). Combating Social Inequalities in Turkey through Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT)? Conference Proceeding, the 9th Global Labour University Conference “Inequality within and among Nations: Causes, Effects, and Responses”, Berlin School of Economics and Law.Google Scholar
  12. Boratav, K. (1990). Inter-Class and Intra-Class Relations of Distribution Under ‘Structural Adjustment’: Turkey During the 1980s. In T. Aricanli & D. Rodrik (Eds.), The Political Economy of Turkey: Debt, Adjustment and Sustainability (pp. 199–229). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boratav, K., Yeldan, E., & Köse, A. H. (2002). Globalization, distribution and social policy: Turkey: 1980–1998. In L. Taylor (Ed.), External Liberalization and Social Policy. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bozkuş, S. C. (2009). Importance of Human Capital and Infrastructure for Turkish Regions. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Sociology, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Bozkuş, S. C., & Elveren, A. Y. (2008). An Analysis of Gender Gaps in the Private Pension Scheme in Turkey. Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 19(69), 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buğra, A. (2012). The changing welfare regime of Turkey: Neoliberalism, cultural conservatism and social solidarity redefined. In S. Dedeoğlu & A. Y. Elveren (Eds.), Gender and society in Turkey: The impact of neo-liberal policies, political Islam and EU accession (pp. 15–31). London and New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  17. Buğra, A. (2013). Revisiting the Wollstonecraft dilemma in the context of conservative liberalism: The case of female employment in Turkey. Social Politics, 21(1), 148–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buğra, A., & Candaş, A. (2011). Change and Continuity under an Eclectic Social Security Regime: The Case of Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 47(3), 515–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buğra, A., & Keyder, Ç. (2006). The Turkish Welfare Regime in Transformation. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(3), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Çağatay, N. (1986). Inter-Industry Structure of Wages and Markups in Turkish Manufacturing. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, Stanford University, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Dedeoğlu, S. (2013). Veiled Europeanisation of Welfare State in Turkey: Gender and Social Policy in the 2000s. Women’s Studies International Forum, 41(1), 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dedeoğlu, S., & Elveren, A. Y. (Eds.) (2012a). Gender and Society in Turkey: The Impact of Neo-Liberal Policies, Political Islam and EU accession. London & New York: I.B. Tauris Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Dedeoğlu, S., & Elveren, A. Y. (Eds.) (2012b). Türkiye’de Refah Devleti ve Kadın [The Welfare State and Woman in Turkey]. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınevi.Google Scholar
  24. Dedeoğlu, S., & Elveren, A. Y. (Eds.) (2015). 2000’ler Türkiye’sinde Sosyal Politika ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet [Social Policy and Gender in Turkey in the 2000s]. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi Yayınları.Google Scholar
  25. Derin-Güre, P., & Elveren, A. Y. (2014). Does Income Inequality Derive Separatist Terrorism in Turkey? Defence and Peace Economics, 25(3), 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ecevit, Y. (2008). İşgücüne Katılım ve İstihdam (Labour Force Participation and Employment). In M. Tan, S. Sancar & S. Acuner (Eds.), Türkiye’de Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitsizliği: Sorunlar, Öncelikler ve Çözüm Öneriler (pp. 113–213). İstanbul: İstanbul TÜSİAD Publications.Google Scholar
  27. Elgin, C., & Kuzubaş, T. U. (2012). Wage-Productivity Gap in Turkish Manufacturing Sector. Iktisat Isletme ve Finans, 27(316), 9–31.Google Scholar
  28. Elveren, A. Y. (2008a). Social Security Reform in Turkey: A Critical Perspective. Review of Radical Political Economics, 40(2), 212–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elveren, A. Y. (2008b). Assessing Gender Inequality in the Turkish Pension System. International Social Security Review, 61(2), 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elveren, A. Y. (2010). Wage Inequality in Turkey: Decomposition by Statistical Regions, 1980–2001. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 22(1), 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Elveren, A. Y. (2012). Military Spending and Income Inequality: Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey, 1963–2007. Defence and Peace Economics, 23(3), 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elveren, A. Y. (2013a). A Brief Note on Deunionization and Pay Inequality in Turkey. The University of Texas Inequality Project Working Paper, No. 63.Google Scholar
  33. Elveren, A. Y. (2013b). A critical analysis of the pension system in Turkey from a gender equality perspective. Women’s Studies International Forum, 41(1), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elveren, A. Y. (2015a). Türkiye’de Sosyal Güvenlik Sisteminin Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliği Açısından Bir Değerlendirmesi. In S. Dedeoğlu & A. Y. Elveren (Eds.), 2000’ler Türkiye’sinde Sosyal Politika ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet (pp. 63–91). Ankara: Imge Yayinevi.Google Scholar
  35. Elveren, A. Y. (2015b). The Impact of the Informal Employment on the Social Security Deficits in Turkey. World Journal of Applied Economics, 1(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Elveren, A. Y. (2018). The Pious Predator State: The New Regime in Turkey. Challenge, 61(1), 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elveren, A. Y., & Ağartan, T. İ. (2017). The Turkish Welfare State System: With Special Reference to Human Capital Development. In C. Aspalter (Ed.), The Routledge International Handbook to Welfare State Systems. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Elveren, M. A., & Elveren, A. Y. (2010). The Transformation of the Welfare Regime in Turkey and the Individual Pension System. Mülkiye, 34(266), 243–258.Google Scholar
  39. Elveren, A. Y., & Galbraith, J. K. (2009). Pay Inequality in Turkey in the Neo-Liberal Era, 1980–2001. European Journal of Comparative Economics, 6(2), 177–206.Google Scholar
  40. Elveren, A. Y., & Hsu, S. (2007). Gender Gaps in the Individual Pension System in Turkey. The University of Utah, Department of Economics, Working Paper No. 6.Google Scholar
  41. Elveren, A. Y., Ornek, I., & Akel, G. (2012). Internationalisation, growth and pay inequality: A cointegration analysis for Turkey, 1970–2007. International Review of Applied Economics, 26(5), 579–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elveren, A. Y., & Özgür, G. (2016). The Effect of Informal Economy on Income Inequality: Evidence from Turkey. Panoeconomicus, 63(3), 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elveren, A. Y., & Toksöz, G. (2017). Why Don’t Highly Skilled Women Want to Return? Turkey’s Brain Drain from a Gender Perspective. MPRA No. 80290, 2017. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/80290/
  44. Emir, İ., Erbaydır, T., & Yüksel, A. (2013). Şartlı Nakit Transferi Uygulaması Kadınların Toplumsal Konumunu Değiştiriyor mu? Fe Dergi: Feminist Eleştiri, 5(2), 120–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eres, B. (2005). The Profit Rate in the Turkish Economy: 1968–2000. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Google Scholar
  46. Eres, B. (2011). Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi’nin Siyasî Başarısının Kaynakları Üzerine Kısa bir Not. Mülkiye, 35(271), 163–174.Google Scholar
  47. Galbraith, J. K. (2008). The Predator State How Conservatives Abandoned the Free Market and Why Liberals Should Too. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Heper, M. (1997). Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Toward a Reconciliation? Middle East Journal, 51(1), 32–45.Google Scholar
  49. İçduygu, A., Romano, D., & Sirkeci, I. (2010). The ethnic question in an environment of insecurity: The Kurds in Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(6), 991–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. İlkkaracan, İ. (2012). Why there are so few women in the labor market in Turkey? A multi dimensional approach. Feminist Economics, 18(1), 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karadeniz, O. (2012). Asisp Annual Report 2012 Turkey: Pensions, Health Care and Long Term Care. http://pensionreform.ru/files/13660/ASISP.%20Annual%20National%20Report%202012%20-%20Turkey.pdf
  52. Kızılırmak Yakışır, A. B. (2003). Explaining Wage Inequality: Evidence from Turkey. Ankara University Faculty of Political Science Research Center for Development and Society Working Paper 57.Google Scholar
  53. Larner, W. (2000). Post-welfare state governance: Towards a code of social and family responsibility. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 7(2), 244–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lomeli, E. V. (2008). Conditional Cash Transfers as Social Policy in Latin America: An Assessment of their Contributions and Limitations. The Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 475–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Memis, E. (2007a). Inter- and Intraclass Distribution of Income in Turkish Manufacturing, 1970–2000. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Google Scholar
  56. Memis, E. (2007b). A Disaggregate Analysis of Profit Rates in Turkish Manufacturing. Review of Radical Political Economics, 39(3), 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meschi, E., Taymaz, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2008). Trade Openness and the Demand for Skills: Evidence from Turkish Microdata. Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper 3887.Google Scholar
  58. Onaran, Ö. (2009). Wage Share, Globalization and Crisis: The Case of the Manufacturing Industry in Korea, Mexico and Turkey. International Review of Applied Economics, 23(2), 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ongan, T. H. (2011). Profit Rate of Turkish Manufacturing Sector in a Marxian Perspective. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1, 1–10.Google Scholar
  60. Öniş, Z. (1997). The Political Economy of Islamic Resurgence in Turkey: The Rise of the Welfare Party in Perspective. Third World Quarterly, 18(4), 743–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oyvat, C. (2011). Globalization, Wage Shares and Income Distribution in Turkey. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 4(1), 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Özden, B. A., Akça, İ., & Bekmen, A. (2017). Antinomies of Authoritarian Neoliberalism in Turkey: The Justice and Development Party Era, In C. B. Tansel (Ed.), States of Discipline: Authoritarian Neoliberalism and the Contested Reproduction of Capitalist Order (pp. 189–209). London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield International.Google Scholar
  63. Polanyi, K. 1944 [2001]. The Great Transformation The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  64. Şahin, Ş., & Elveren, A. Y. (2011). Assessing a Minimum Pension Guarantee for the voluntary IPS in Turkey. International Social Security Review, 64(3), 39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Şahin, Ş., & Elveren, A. Y. (2014). A Minimum Pension Guarantee Application for Turkey: A Gendered Perspective. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 35(3), 242–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Şahin, Ş., Rittersberger-Tılıç, H., & Elveren, A. Y. (2010). The Individual Pension System in Turkey: A Gendered Perspective. Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 21(77), 115–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith, A. M. (2008). Neoliberalism, welfare policy, and feminist theories of social justice. Feminist Theory, 9(2), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Toksöz, G. (2016). Transition from ‘Woman’ to ‘Family’, An Analysis of AKP Era Employment Policies from a Gender Perspective. Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, 32(1/2), 64–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Türkmen, B. (2009). A transformed Kemalist Islam or a new Islamic civic morality? A study of “religious culture and morality” textbooks in the Turkish high school curricula. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 29(3), 381–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ünder, H. (2012). Constructivism and the Curriculum Reform of the AKP. In K. İnal & G. Akkaymak (Eds.), Neoliberal Transformation of Education in Turkey Political and Ideological Analysis of Educational Reforms in the Age of the AKP (pp. 33–45). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Voyvoda, E., & Yeldan, E. (2001). Patterns of Productivity Growth and the Wage Cycle in Turkish Manufacturing. International Review of Applied Economics, 15(4), 375–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yeldan, E. (2006). Neoliberal Global Remedies: From Speculative-Led Growth to IMF-Led Crisis in Turkey. Review of Radical Political Economics, 38(2), 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yildirim, J., Ozdemir, S., & Sezgin, F. (2014). A Qualitative Evaluation of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Turkey: The Beneficiaries’ and Key Informants’ Perspectives. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(1), 62–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yılmaz, B. (2014). Türkiye’de Sosyal Devletin Dönüşümü ve Sosyal Yardımlar: Şartlı Nakit Transferi Alan Kadınlar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. In K. Akkoyunlu Ertan, F. Kartal & Y. Şanlı Atay (Eds.), Sosyal Adelet için İnsan Hakları: Sosyal Haklar Bildiriler Kitabı. Ankara: TODAİE.Google Scholar
  75. Yörük, E. (2012). Welfare Provision as Political Containment: The Politics of Social Assistance and the Kurdish Conflict in Turkey. Politics & Society, 40(4), 517–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yörük, E., & Özsoy, H. (2013). Shifting forms of Turkish state paternalism toward the Kurds: Social assistance as “benevolent” control. Dialectical Anthropology, 37(1), 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adem Yavuz Elveren
    • 1
  1. 1.Fitchburg State UniversityFitchburgUSA

Personalised recommendations