Advertisement

Conclusion

  • Ivor Sokolić
Chapter
Part of the Memory Politics and Transitional Justice book series (MPTJ)

Abstract

The concluding chapter looks at what effect international and domestic war crimes trials have had on Croatian society. It asks whether the Croatian process of transitional justice was successful? The effect of the process on norms and narratives related to the Homeland War conflict was ambiguous. It took place in the context of widespread cynicism and justice narratives struggled to compete with the dominant war narrative, unless they were aligned with it. A societal reckoning with the past did not occur, although deliberation did happen with some segments of society. Using a deliberative lens, the chapter then compares the findings to other instances of transitional justice—regionally and temporally—and proposes lessons for future endeavours. The Croatian case shows the expressivist potential that transitional justice has for transforming societal narratives, but also its limitations when facing localised complexities.

References

  1. Bass, G. J. (2000). Stay the hand of vengeance: The politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bieber, F. (2013, November 21). Ready for the homeland? Simunic and a bit of normal fascism. Balkan Insight. Available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/blog/ready-for-the-homeland-simunic-and-a-bit-of-normal-fascism. Accessed 3 May 2016.
  3. Blanuša, B. (2017). Trauma and taboo: Forbidden political questions in Croatia. Politička Misao, 54, 170–196.Google Scholar
  4. Brentin, D. (2016). Ready for the homeland? Ritual, remembrance, and political extremism in Croatian football. Nationalities Papers (web). Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2015.1136996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christie, N. (2001). Answers to atrocities: Restorative justice as an answer to extreme situations. In E. A. Fattah & S. Parmentier (Eds.), Victim policies and criminal justice on the road to restorative justice (pp. 379–387). Leuven: Leuven University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Clarke, J. N. (2016). In from the margins: Survivors of wartime sexual violence in Croatia and an early analysis of the new law. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 8, 128–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drumbl, M. A. (2007). Atrocity, punishment and international law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Duggan, C., Bailey, C., & Guillerot, J. (2008). Reparations for sexual and reproductive violence: Prospects for achieving gender justice in Guatemala and Peru. The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2, 192–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordy, E. (2014). Guilt, responsibility, and denial: The past at stake in post-Milošević Serbia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hafner-Burton, E., & Ron, J. (2007). Human rights institutions: Rhetoric and efficacy. Journal of Peace Research, 44, 379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hafner-Burton, E., & Tsutsui, K. (2007). Justice lost! The failure of international human rights law to matter where needed most. Journal of Peace Research, 44, 407–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Horne, C. M. (2015). The timing of transitional justice measures. In N. Nedelsky & L. Stan (Eds.), Post-communist transitional justice: Lessons from twenty-five years of experience (pp. 123–147). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones, B., & Oliveira, I. (2016). Truth Commission Archives as ‘New Democratic Spaces’. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 8, 6–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jović, I., & Romić. T. (2012, November 16). Milanović i Josipovič generalima: Stoički ste podnijeli žrtvu, hvala! [Milanović and Josipovič to the generals: You took the sacrifice stoically, thank you!] Večernji List. Available at http://www.vecernji.hr/hrvatska/milanovic-i-josipovic-generalima-stoicki-ste-podnijeli-zrtvu-hvala-475959. Accessed 3 May 2016.
  15. Klarin, M. (2009). The impact of the ICTY trials on public opinion in the former Yugoslavia. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 7, 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambourne, W. (2009). Transitional justice and peacebuilding after mass violence. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 3, 28–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lynch, M., & Marchesi, B. (2015). The adoption and impact of transitional justice. In N. Nedelsky & L. Stan (Eds.), Post-communist transitional justice: Lessons from twenty-five years of experience (pp. 73–98). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maier, C. S. (1988). The unmasterable past: History, holocaust, and German national identity. London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. McAuliffe, P. (2017). Transformative transitional justice and the malleability of post-conflict states. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McMahon, P. C., & Forsythe, D. P. (2008). The ICTY’s impact on Serbia: Judicial romanticism meets network politics. Human Rights Quarterly, 30, 412–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Narodne Novine. (2015). Zakon o pravima žrtava seksualnog nasilja za vrijeme oružane agresije na Republiku Hrvatsku u Domovinskom ratu [Law on the rights of victims of sexual violence during the armed aggression against the Republic of Croatia in the Homeland War]. Available at http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2015_06_64_1221.html.
  22. Nettelfield, L. J. (2010). Courting democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Hague tribunal’s impact in a postwar state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Novi List. (2014, May 12). Arbitražni sud odbio Šimuniča: Nedvosmisleno je koristio ustaški uzvik [The court of arbitration has rejected Šimunič: He undoubtedly used an ustasha salute]. Available at http://www.novilist.hr/Sport/Nogomet/Arbitrazni-sud-odbio-Simunica-Nedvosmisleno-je-koristio-ustaski-uzvik. Accessed 2 May 2016.
  24. Ostojić, M. (2014). Between justice and stability: The politics of war crimes prosecutions in post-Milošević Serbia. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  25. Pavlaković, V. (2008). Red stars, black shirts: Symbols, commemorations, and contested histories of World War Two in Croatia. Seattle: The National Council for Euroasian and East European Research.Google Scholar
  26. Pavlaković, V. (2014). Fulfilling the thousand-year-old dream: Strategies of symbolic nation-building in Croatia. In P. Kolstø (Ed.), Strategies of symbolic nation-building in south eastern Europe (pp. 19–50). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  27. Rangelov, I. (2014). Nationalism and the rule of law: Lessons from the Balkans and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Risse, T., Ropp, S. C., & Sikkink, K. (1999). The power of human rights: International norms and domestic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schäuble, M. (2014). Narrating victimhood: Gender, religion and the making of place in post-war Croatia. Oxford: Barghahn.Google Scholar
  30. Sharp, D. (2013). Interrogating the peripheries: The preoccupations of fourth generation transitional justice. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 26, 517–526.Google Scholar
  31. Snyder, J. L., & Vinjamuri, L. (2003). Trials and errors: Principle and pragmatism in strategies of international justice. International Security, 28, 5–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stover, E., & Weinsten, H. M. (2004). My neighbor, my enemy: Justice and community in the aftermath of mass atrocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Subotic, J. (2009). Hijacked justice: Dealing with the past in the Balkans. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Subotic, J. (2015). The mythologizing of communist violence. In L. Stan & N. Nedelsky (Eds.), Post-communist transitional justice: Lessons from twenty-five years of experience (pp. 188–210). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thoms, O., Ron, J., & Paris, R. (2010). State-level effects of transitional justice: What do we know? The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4, 329–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2015, May 13). Draft mine action governance and management assessment for BiH.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivor Sokolić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GovernmentLondon School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations